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  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2000160
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    In this paper, we use census tract data to analyse changes in neighbourhood income inequality and residential economic segregation in the eight largest Canadian cities during the 1980-95 period. Is the income gap between richer and poorer neighbourhoods rising? Are high and low-income families increasingly clustered in economically homogeneous neighbourhoods? The main results are an elaboration of the spatial implications of the well documented changes that have occurred in family income and earnings inequality since 1980. We find that between neighbourhood family income (post-transfer/pre-tax) inequality rose in all cities driven by a substantial rise in neighbourhood (employment) earnings inequality. Real average earnings fell, sometimes dramatically, in low-income neighbourhoods in virtually all cities while rising moderately in higher income neighbourhoods. Strikingly, social transfers, which were the main factor stabilizing national level income inequality in the face of rising earnings inequality, had only a modest impact on changes in neighbourhood inequality. Changes in the neighbourhood distribution of earnings signal significant change in the social and economic character of many neighbourhoods. Employment was increasingly concentrated in higher income communities and unemployment in lower income neighbourhoods. Finally, we ask whether neighbourhood inequality rose primarily as a result of rising family income inequality in the city as a whole or because families were increasingly sorting themselves into "like" neighbourhoods so that neighbourhoods were becoming more economically homogeneous (economic "segregation"). We find that economic spatial segregation increased in all cities and was the major factor behind rising neighbourhood inequality in four of the eight cities. A general rise in urban family income inequality was the main factor in the remaining four cities.

    Release date: 2000-12-13

  • Articles and reports: 11-008-X20000035386
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This article looks at Canadians' incomes and expeditures in the 20th century.

    Release date: 2000-12-12

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X201010313246
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    All provinces and territories set minimum wages in their employment standards legislation. This update uses the Labour Force Survey to examine the characteristics of those who work at or below the minimum wage for experienced adults in each jurisdiction. The incidence of working for minimum wage has increased each year since 2006 but remains concentrated among youth, particularly young women.

    Release date: 2000-12-11

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X201010713254
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    The loss of manufacturing jobs can affect other sectors of the economy, particularly when local employment is heavily concentrated in manufacturing. This article covers income, low-income incidence and Employment Insurance use, in regions with varying concentrations of manufacturing employment. The article focuses on the period from 2000 the most recent peak in manufacturing employment to 2007 the last full year of economic growth.

    Release date: 2000-12-11

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X20000115608
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This study looks at those who voluntarily work part time, as well as their reasons for doing so, their levels of work-related stress, and their job characteristics.

    Release date: 2000-11-24

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X20000015302
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This article examines changes in household spending on health care between 1978 and 1998. It also provides a detailed look at household spending on health care in 1998.

    Release date: 2000-10-20

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X20000035371
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Changing the focus - from the individual to the family, from one week to one year - can dramatically alter perceptions of unemployment. This article compares alternative measures with the official rate over the last two decades.

    Release date: 2000-09-06

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X20000035372
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Some taxes may be higher, some lower than in other developed nations, but overall Canada's effective tax rate is middle-of-the-road. Using OECD data, this study compares several tax-t0-GDP ratios of the G-7 and the 29 OECD countires.

    Release date: 2000-09-06

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X20000035373
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Payroll taxes vary widely in level and growth across the provinces. Of the nine taxes, only three are nationwide. This article looks at trends across the country. It also briefly compares total Canadian payroll taxes with those of other G-7 and OECD nations.

    Release date: 2000-09-06

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X20000035374
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This article examines the issue of non-union members who are covered by collective agreements, comparing the Canadian picture in the late 1990s with that of the United States. An accompanying update, which covers the first half of 2000, provides Perspectives annual socio-demograhic and economic profile of union members.

    Release date: 2000-09-06
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  • 11. Rural roots Archived
    Articles and reports: 75-001-X20000035375
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    For some time, concerns have been raised about the movement of young people away from rural areas, mainly to find work. This article provides information on the extent to which youths stay, leave or return to rural communities. (Adapted from a recently published analytical report.)

    Release date: 2000-09-06

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2000140
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    The correlation of occupational gender composition and wages is the basis of pay equity/comparable worth legislation. A number of previous studies have examined this correlation in US data, identifying some of the determinants of low wages in "female jobs", as well as important limitations of public policy in this area. There is little evidence, however, from other jurisdictions. This omission is particularly disturbing in the case of Canada, which now has some of the most extensive pay equity legislation in the world. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive picture, circa the late 1980's, of the occupational gender segregation in Canada and its consequences for wages. We also draw explicit comparisons of our findings to evidence for the United States. We find that the link between female wages and gender composition is much stronger in the United States than in Canada, where it is generally small and not statistically significant. The relatively more advantageous position of women in female jobs in Canada is found to be linked to higher unionization rates and the industry-wage effects of "public goods" sectors.

    Release date: 2000-09-05

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X20000025068
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This study defines average annual earnings as the product of three components: hourly earnings, weekly hours and annual weeks. It looks at each component's contribution to differences in provincial earnings.

    Release date: 2000-06-07

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X20000025069
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Employment and unemployment rates have historically been used as indicators of labour market conditions. This study evaluates the performance of another indicator, the Help-wanted Index, and re-examines the association between it and employment rates, unemployment rates and hirings from 1981 to 1999.

    Release date: 2000-06-07

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X20000025070
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Payroll taxes have grown substantially since the early 1980s, and have become an increasingly important source of government revenues. This article, part one of a two-part analysis, details the various payroll taxes collected by the federal and provincial governments. A subsequent article will report on national and provincial trends in the level, growth and role of each component and compare Canadian payroll taxes to those of the other G-7 countries.

    Release date: 2000-06-07

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X20000025071
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Much discussion of comparative tax rates is based on federal statutory income tax rates. But taxes actually paid are often quite different, owing to various tax deductions, credits, surtaxes and payroll taxes. This study uses effective rather than statutory tax rates to compare income taxes paid by individuals and families in Canada and the United States.

    Release date: 2000-06-07

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X20000025072
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This article examines available empirical evidence about Canada's "brain drain" - the loss of knowledge workers to the United States. It also looks at Canada's "brain gain" - the acquisition of knowledge workers from the rest of the world. (Adapted from an article in the Spring 2000 issue of Education Quarterly Review).

    Release date: 2000-06-07

  • Articles and reports: 89-552-M2000007
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This paper addresses the problem of statistical inference with ordinal variates and examines the robustness to alternative literacy measurement and scaling choices of rankings of average literacy and of estimates of the impact of literacy on individual earnings.

    Release date: 2000-06-02

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2000146
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    In this paper, we investigate the extent to which Canadians were exposed to low income during the 1993-1996 period. Our main findings are the following. First, while 1 in 10 Canadians live in families with low income in a given year, as many as 1 in 5 are exposed to at least one year of low income during a 4-year interval. Second, 1 in 20 Canadians are exposed to low income for 4 consecutive years. Third, 40% to 60% of individuals who fall into low income in a given year will no longer have low income the following year. Fourth, some spells of low income last a long time: of all spells started in 1994, 30% lasted 3 years or more. Fifth, Canadians who are the most susceptible to low income tend to be young; to have little education; to be students and to live as unattached individuals or in lone-parent families. As well, Canadians facing disabilities that entail work limitations, those who are members of visible minorities (when considering the exposure to 4 years of low income) or who have immigrated in or after 1977 tend to experience low income. Sixth, high probabilities of being exposed to low income do not necessarily imply high income gaps, that is, the average income of those in low income may be quite close to the low income cut-off. As a result, a complete understanding of the extent to which Canadians are exposed to low income requires an analysis of both the probabilities of being exposed and the income gaps while being exposed.

    Release date: 2000-05-19

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2000148
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    There is a general sense that the 1990s labour market was unique. It has been characterized by notions such as "downsizing", "technological revolution", "the knowledge-based economy", "rising job instability", and so on. This paper provides an extensive overview of the performance of the 1990s labour market, and asks just how different it was from the 1980s. It goes on to ask if the facts are consistent with many common beliefs and explanations. The paper focuses on (a) macro-level labour market outcomes, and (b) distributional outcomes. Macro-level topics include: has the nature of work changed dramatically in the 1990s? has there been a continued ratcheting up of unemployment? have we witnessed rising job instability and increased levels of layoffs? did company downsizing increase in the 1990s? why did per capita income growth stall in the 1990s? for a worker with a given level of human capital, has there been a deterioration in labour market outcomes?

    Much of the focus in the labour market over the 1980s and 1990s was on distributional outcomes - who is winning and who is losing. Some of the distributional outcomes of the 1990s labour market addressed in the paper include: outcomes for men and women; changes in the relative wages of the highly educated and earnings inequality; trends in the rate of low-income; the changing outcomes for recent labour market entrants, including young people and immigrants; and the extent to which technological change plays a major role in these outcomes.

    The paper concludes with a discussion of the overall performance of the 1990s labour market as compared to the 1980s.

    Release date: 2000-05-04
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