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All (29) (0 to 10 of 29 results)

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2000160
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    In this paper, we use census tract data to analyse changes in neighbourhood income inequality and residential economic segregation in the eight largest Canadian cities during the 1980-95 period. Is the income gap between richer and poorer neighbourhoods rising? Are high and low-income families increasingly clustered in economically homogeneous neighbourhoods? The main results are an elaboration of the spatial implications of the well documented changes that have occurred in family income and earnings inequality since 1980. We find that between neighbourhood family income (post-transfer/pre-tax) inequality rose in all cities driven by a substantial rise in neighbourhood (employment) earnings inequality. Real average earnings fell, sometimes dramatically, in low-income neighbourhoods in virtually all cities while rising moderately in higher income neighbourhoods. Strikingly, social transfers, which were the main factor stabilizing national level income inequality in the face of rising earnings inequality, had only a modest impact on changes in neighbourhood inequality. Changes in the neighbourhood distribution of earnings signal significant change in the social and economic character of many neighbourhoods. Employment was increasingly concentrated in higher income communities and unemployment in lower income neighbourhoods. Finally, we ask whether neighbourhood inequality rose primarily as a result of rising family income inequality in the city as a whole or because families were increasingly sorting themselves into "like" neighbourhoods so that neighbourhoods were becoming more economically homogeneous (economic "segregation"). We find that economic spatial segregation increased in all cities and was the major factor behind rising neighbourhood inequality in four of the eight cities. A general rise in urban family income inequality was the main factor in the remaining four cities.

    Release date: 2000-12-13

  • Articles and reports: 11-008-X20000035386
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This article looks at Canadians' incomes and expeditures in the 20th century.

    Release date: 2000-12-12

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X201010313246
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    All provinces and territories set minimum wages in their employment standards legislation. This update uses the Labour Force Survey to examine the characteristics of those who work at or below the minimum wage for experienced adults in each jurisdiction. The incidence of working for minimum wage has increased each year since 2006 but remains concentrated among youth, particularly young women.

    Release date: 2000-12-11

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X201010713254
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    The loss of manufacturing jobs can affect other sectors of the economy, particularly when local employment is heavily concentrated in manufacturing. This article covers income, low-income incidence and Employment Insurance use, in regions with varying concentrations of manufacturing employment. The article focuses on the period from 2000 the most recent peak in manufacturing employment to 2007 the last full year of economic growth.

    Release date: 2000-12-11

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X20000115608
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This study looks at those who voluntarily work part time, as well as their reasons for doing so, their levels of work-related stress, and their job characteristics.

    Release date: 2000-11-24

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X20000015302
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This article examines changes in household spending on health care between 1978 and 1998. It also provides a detailed look at household spending on health care in 1998.

    Release date: 2000-10-20

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X20000035371
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Changing the focus - from the individual to the family, from one week to one year - can dramatically alter perceptions of unemployment. This article compares alternative measures with the official rate over the last two decades.

    Release date: 2000-09-06

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X20000035372
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Some taxes may be higher, some lower than in other developed nations, but overall Canada's effective tax rate is middle-of-the-road. Using OECD data, this study compares several tax-t0-GDP ratios of the G-7 and the 29 OECD countires.

    Release date: 2000-09-06

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X20000035373
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Payroll taxes vary widely in level and growth across the provinces. Of the nine taxes, only three are nationwide. This article looks at trends across the country. It also briefly compares total Canadian payroll taxes with those of other G-7 and OECD nations.

    Release date: 2000-09-06

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X20000035374
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This article examines the issue of non-union members who are covered by collective agreements, comparing the Canadian picture in the late 1990s with that of the United States. An accompanying update, which covers the first half of 2000, provides Perspectives annual socio-demograhic and economic profile of union members.

    Release date: 2000-09-06
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Analysis (29)

Analysis (29) (0 to 10 of 29 results)

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2000160
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    In this paper, we use census tract data to analyse changes in neighbourhood income inequality and residential economic segregation in the eight largest Canadian cities during the 1980-95 period. Is the income gap between richer and poorer neighbourhoods rising? Are high and low-income families increasingly clustered in economically homogeneous neighbourhoods? The main results are an elaboration of the spatial implications of the well documented changes that have occurred in family income and earnings inequality since 1980. We find that between neighbourhood family income (post-transfer/pre-tax) inequality rose in all cities driven by a substantial rise in neighbourhood (employment) earnings inequality. Real average earnings fell, sometimes dramatically, in low-income neighbourhoods in virtually all cities while rising moderately in higher income neighbourhoods. Strikingly, social transfers, which were the main factor stabilizing national level income inequality in the face of rising earnings inequality, had only a modest impact on changes in neighbourhood inequality. Changes in the neighbourhood distribution of earnings signal significant change in the social and economic character of many neighbourhoods. Employment was increasingly concentrated in higher income communities and unemployment in lower income neighbourhoods. Finally, we ask whether neighbourhood inequality rose primarily as a result of rising family income inequality in the city as a whole or because families were increasingly sorting themselves into "like" neighbourhoods so that neighbourhoods were becoming more economically homogeneous (economic "segregation"). We find that economic spatial segregation increased in all cities and was the major factor behind rising neighbourhood inequality in four of the eight cities. A general rise in urban family income inequality was the main factor in the remaining four cities.

    Release date: 2000-12-13

  • Articles and reports: 11-008-X20000035386
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This article looks at Canadians' incomes and expeditures in the 20th century.

    Release date: 2000-12-12

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X201010313246
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    All provinces and territories set minimum wages in their employment standards legislation. This update uses the Labour Force Survey to examine the characteristics of those who work at or below the minimum wage for experienced adults in each jurisdiction. The incidence of working for minimum wage has increased each year since 2006 but remains concentrated among youth, particularly young women.

    Release date: 2000-12-11

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X201010713254
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    The loss of manufacturing jobs can affect other sectors of the economy, particularly when local employment is heavily concentrated in manufacturing. This article covers income, low-income incidence and Employment Insurance use, in regions with varying concentrations of manufacturing employment. The article focuses on the period from 2000 the most recent peak in manufacturing employment to 2007 the last full year of economic growth.

    Release date: 2000-12-11

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X20000115608
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This study looks at those who voluntarily work part time, as well as their reasons for doing so, their levels of work-related stress, and their job characteristics.

    Release date: 2000-11-24

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X20000015302
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This article examines changes in household spending on health care between 1978 and 1998. It also provides a detailed look at household spending on health care in 1998.

    Release date: 2000-10-20

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X20000035371
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Changing the focus - from the individual to the family, from one week to one year - can dramatically alter perceptions of unemployment. This article compares alternative measures with the official rate over the last two decades.

    Release date: 2000-09-06

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X20000035372
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Some taxes may be higher, some lower than in other developed nations, but overall Canada's effective tax rate is middle-of-the-road. Using OECD data, this study compares several tax-t0-GDP ratios of the G-7 and the 29 OECD countires.

    Release date: 2000-09-06

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X20000035373
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Payroll taxes vary widely in level and growth across the provinces. Of the nine taxes, only three are nationwide. This article looks at trends across the country. It also briefly compares total Canadian payroll taxes with those of other G-7 and OECD nations.

    Release date: 2000-09-06

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X20000035374
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This article examines the issue of non-union members who are covered by collective agreements, comparing the Canadian picture in the late 1990s with that of the United States. An accompanying update, which covers the first half of 2000, provides Perspectives annual socio-demograhic and economic profile of union members.

    Release date: 2000-09-06
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