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  • Articles and reports: 75F0002M2000008
    Description:

    This paper attempts to quantify the magnitude of economic disparity among Canadian provinces. It uses the average annual earning of a province as an indicator of economic well-being for that province.

    Release date: 2000-12-18

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2000160
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    In this paper, we use census tract data to analyse changes in neighbourhood income inequality and residential economic segregation in the eight largest Canadian cities during the 1980-95 period. Is the income gap between richer and poorer neighbourhoods rising? Are high and low-income families increasingly clustered in economically homogeneous neighbourhoods? The main results are an elaboration of the spatial implications of the well documented changes that have occurred in family income and earnings inequality since 1980. We find that between neighbourhood family income (post-transfer/pre-tax) inequality rose in all cities driven by a substantial rise in neighbourhood (employment) earnings inequality. Real average earnings fell, sometimes dramatically, in low-income neighbourhoods in virtually all cities while rising moderately in higher income neighbourhoods. Strikingly, social transfers, which were the main factor stabilizing national level income inequality in the face of rising earnings inequality, had only a modest impact on changes in neighbourhood inequality. Changes in the neighbourhood distribution of earnings signal significant change in the social and economic character of many neighbourhoods. Employment was increasingly concentrated in higher income communities and unemployment in lower income neighbourhoods. Finally, we ask whether neighbourhood inequality rose primarily as a result of rising family income inequality in the city as a whole or because families were increasingly sorting themselves into "like" neighbourhoods so that neighbourhoods were becoming more economically homogeneous (economic "segregation"). We find that economic spatial segregation increased in all cities and was the major factor behind rising neighbourhood inequality in four of the eight cities. A general rise in urban family income inequality was the main factor in the remaining four cities.

    Release date: 2000-12-13

  • Articles and reports: 11-008-X20000035386
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This article looks at Canadians' incomes and expeditures in the 20th century.

    Release date: 2000-12-12

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 62F0026M2000005
    Description:

    This guide presents information of interest to users of data from the Survey of Household Spending. Data are collected via personal interview conducted in January, February and March after the reference year using a paper questionnaire. Information is gathered about the spending habits, dwelling characteristics and household equipment of Canadian households during the reference year. The survey covers private households in the ten provinces and three territories. (The three territories are surveyed every second year.)

    This guide includes definitions of survey terms and variables and descriptions of survey methodology and data quality. There is also a section describing the various statistics that can be created using expenditure data (e.g., budget share, market share, and aggregates).

    Release date: 2000-12-12

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X201010313246
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    All provinces and territories set minimum wages in their employment standards legislation. This update uses the Labour Force Survey to examine the characteristics of those who work at or below the minimum wage for experienced adults in each jurisdiction. The incidence of working for minimum wage has increased each year since 2006 but remains concentrated among youth, particularly young women.

    Release date: 2000-12-11

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X201010713254
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    The loss of manufacturing jobs can affect other sectors of the economy, particularly when local employment is heavily concentrated in manufacturing. This article covers income, low-income incidence and Employment Insurance use, in regions with varying concentrations of manufacturing employment. The article focuses on the period from 2000 the most recent peak in manufacturing employment to 2007 the last full year of economic growth.

    Release date: 2000-12-11

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X20000115608
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This study looks at those who voluntarily work part time, as well as their reasons for doing so, their levels of work-related stress, and their job characteristics.

    Release date: 2000-11-24

  • Table: 74-401-S
    Description:

    Retirement issues have risen to the forefront of socio-economic debate in Canada through the nineties and will likely gain importance as we enter the new millennium. Employer pension plans are one of the primary programs in place to provide workers with income after retirement.

    Pension plans in Canada: statistical highlights and key tables presents information on the terms, conditions and membership on all employers sponsored pension plans in Canada. This supplement to publication Pension plans in Canada (74-401-XIB) provides analysis and data on registered pension plans. The topics covered include province of employment, labour force/paid workers coverage, type of plan (defined benefit and defined contributions), size of plan, public and private sectors, contributory and non-contributory plans, employee and employer contributions.

    Release date: 2000-10-31

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X20000015302
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This article examines changes in household spending on health care between 1978 and 1998. It also provides a detailed look at household spending on health care in 1998.

    Release date: 2000-10-20

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 75F0002M2000005
    Description:

    This paper describes the collection method and content of the 1999 Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID) income interview.

    Release date: 2000-10-05
Data (4)

Data (4) ((4 results))

  • Table: 74-401-S
    Description:

    Retirement issues have risen to the forefront of socio-economic debate in Canada through the nineties and will likely gain importance as we enter the new millennium. Employer pension plans are one of the primary programs in place to provide workers with income after retirement.

    Pension plans in Canada: statistical highlights and key tables presents information on the terms, conditions and membership on all employers sponsored pension plans in Canada. This supplement to publication Pension plans in Canada (74-401-XIB) provides analysis and data on registered pension plans. The topics covered include province of employment, labour force/paid workers coverage, type of plan (defined benefit and defined contributions), size of plan, public and private sectors, contributory and non-contributory plans, employee and employer contributions.

    Release date: 2000-10-31

  • Table: 74-201-X
    Description:

    This publication presents information on the income, expenditure and assets of all trusteed pension funds in Canada in both the public and private sectors. Data are presented at the Canada level. The publication contains an analysis of the funds based on the size of the fund, the number of members and the type of benefit. It is a continuation of a series of reports produced since 1957. As a single pool of investment capital in Canada, these funds are surpassed in size only by the aggregate reserves held by the chartered banks.

    Release date: 2000-07-17

  • Table: 98-187-X
    Description:

    Censuses of Canada, 1665 to 1871, Statistics of Canada, Volume IV was printed in Ottawa, in 1876, from the Censuses of Canada, 1870-71. This volume contains about 343 statistical tables on the social and economic conditions in Canada from the earliest settlements to Confederation and onto 1871. The results from 98 censuses are arranged in chronological order, with some explanatory notes. In most cases, there are sufficient descriptions of the individual series to enable the reader to use them without consulting the numerous basic sources referenced in the publication.

    An electronic version of this historical publication is accessible on the Internet site of Statistics Canada. The Introduction is a free downloadable document in text as HTML pages for on-line viewing and Adobe Acrobat (PDF) files for printing. The statistical tables are available through E-STAT* (which allows both on-line viewing and downloading).

    Release date: 2000-05-26

  • Table: 92F0138M2000001
    Description:

    With this working paper, Statistics Canada is releasing 1991 Census data tabulated by a new geographic classification called "census metropolitan area and census agglomeration influenced zones", or MIZ. This classification applies to census subdivisions (municipalities) that lie outside census metropolitan areas and census agglomerations. This part of Canada covers 96% of the country's total land mass and contains 22% of its population, yet up to now we have been limited in our means of differentiating this vast area. The MIZ classification shows the influence of census metropolitan areas (CMA) and census agglomerations (CA) on surrounding census subdivisions as measured by commuting flows based on 1991 Census place of work data. This version of the MIZ classification also incorporates a preliminary version of a north concept that flags census subdivisions according to their location in the north or south of Canada.

    The series of tables presented here show detailed demographic, social and economic characteristics for Canada as a whole, for the six major regions of Canada, and for individual provinces and territories. Within each table, the data are subdivided into five categories: census metropolitan area or census agglomeration, strong MIZ, moderate MIZ, weak MIZ and no MIZ. Within each of these categories, the data are further subdivided into north and south.

    Readers are invited to review and use the data tables to assess whether this combined MIZ and north/south classification of non-CMA/CA areas provides sufficient detail to support data analysis and research. The intent of this MIZ classification is to reveal previously hidden data detail and thereby help users address issues related to this vast geographic area.

    This is the first of three related Geography working papers (catalogue no. 92F0138MPE). The second working paper (no. 2000-2, 92F0138MPE00002) provides background information about the methodology used to delineate the MIZ classification. The third working paper (no. 2000-3, 92F0138MPE00003) describes the methodology used to define a continuous line across Canada that separates the north from the south to further differentiate the MIZ classification.

    Release date: 2000-02-03
Analysis (37)

Analysis (37) (20 to 30 of 37 results)

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X20000025071
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Much discussion of comparative tax rates is based on federal statutory income tax rates. But taxes actually paid are often quite different, owing to various tax deductions, credits, surtaxes and payroll taxes. This study uses effective rather than statutory tax rates to compare income taxes paid by individuals and families in Canada and the United States.

    Release date: 2000-06-07

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X20000025072
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This article examines available empirical evidence about Canada's "brain drain" - the loss of knowledge workers to the United States. It also looks at Canada's "brain gain" - the acquisition of knowledge workers from the rest of the world. (Adapted from an article in the Spring 2000 issue of Education Quarterly Review).

    Release date: 2000-06-07

  • Articles and reports: 89-552-M2000007
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This paper addresses the problem of statistical inference with ordinal variates and examines the robustness to alternative literacy measurement and scaling choices of rankings of average literacy and of estimates of the impact of literacy on individual earnings.

    Release date: 2000-06-02

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2000146
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    In this paper, we investigate the extent to which Canadians were exposed to low income during the 1993-1996 period. Our main findings are the following. First, while 1 in 10 Canadians live in families with low income in a given year, as many as 1 in 5 are exposed to at least one year of low income during a 4-year interval. Second, 1 in 20 Canadians are exposed to low income for 4 consecutive years. Third, 40% to 60% of individuals who fall into low income in a given year will no longer have low income the following year. Fourth, some spells of low income last a long time: of all spells started in 1994, 30% lasted 3 years or more. Fifth, Canadians who are the most susceptible to low income tend to be young; to have little education; to be students and to live as unattached individuals or in lone-parent families. As well, Canadians facing disabilities that entail work limitations, those who are members of visible minorities (when considering the exposure to 4 years of low income) or who have immigrated in or after 1977 tend to experience low income. Sixth, high probabilities of being exposed to low income do not necessarily imply high income gaps, that is, the average income of those in low income may be quite close to the low income cut-off. As a result, a complete understanding of the extent to which Canadians are exposed to low income requires an analysis of both the probabilities of being exposed and the income gaps while being exposed.

    Release date: 2000-05-19

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2000148
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    There is a general sense that the 1990s labour market was unique. It has been characterized by notions such as "downsizing", "technological revolution", "the knowledge-based economy", "rising job instability", and so on. This paper provides an extensive overview of the performance of the 1990s labour market, and asks just how different it was from the 1980s. It goes on to ask if the facts are consistent with many common beliefs and explanations. The paper focuses on (a) macro-level labour market outcomes, and (b) distributional outcomes. Macro-level topics include: has the nature of work changed dramatically in the 1990s? has there been a continued ratcheting up of unemployment? have we witnessed rising job instability and increased levels of layoffs? did company downsizing increase in the 1990s? why did per capita income growth stall in the 1990s? for a worker with a given level of human capital, has there been a deterioration in labour market outcomes?

    Much of the focus in the labour market over the 1980s and 1990s was on distributional outcomes - who is winning and who is losing. Some of the distributional outcomes of the 1990s labour market addressed in the paper include: outcomes for men and women; changes in the relative wages of the highly educated and earnings inequality; trends in the rate of low-income; the changing outcomes for recent labour market entrants, including young people and immigrants; and the extent to which technological change plays a major role in these outcomes.

    The paper concludes with a discussion of the overall performance of the 1990s labour market as compared to the 1980s.

    Release date: 2000-05-04

  • Articles and reports: 75F0002M2000003
    Description:

    This article analyzes the longitudinal aspect of involuntary part-time work from 1993 to 1996 using data from the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID).

    Release date: 2000-04-11

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X19990034936
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Canadian provinces and metropolitan areas had generally lower income inequality and lower mortality than their US counterparts.

    Within Canada there was no association between income inequality and mortality at either the provincial or metropolitan area levels. However, this relationship is strong in the United States.

    This Canada-United States comparison suggests that the Canadian urban environment may be more beneficial to health than its US counterpart.

    Release date: 2000-03-31

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2000144
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    In this paper, we revisit trends in low-income among Canadian children by taking advantage of recent developments in the measurement of low-income intensity. We focus in particular on the Sen-Shorrocks-Thon (SST) index and its elaboration by Osberg and Xu. Low-income intensity declined in the 1980s but rose in the 1990s. Declining earnings put upward pressure on low-income levels over much of the period. Higher transfers more than offset this pressure in the 1980s and continued to absorb a substantial share of the increase through 1993. In contrast, the rise in low-income intensity after 1993 reflected reductions in UI and social assistance benefits that were not offset by increased employment earnings, at least to 1996 the latest year used in this paper.

    A major aim of the paper is methodological. We contrast results using the SST index with results produced by the more familiar low-income rate, the usual measure for indexing low-income trends. The low-income rate is embedded in the SST index, but unlike the index, the rate incorporates only partial information on the distribution of low-income. Consequently, the low-income rate is generally unable to detect the changes we describe and this is true irrespective of the choice of low-income cut-off. Compared to the low-income intensity measure, the rate is also relatively insensitive to changes in transfer payments and employment earnings.

    Release date: 2000-03-30

  • 29. RRSPs in the 1990s Archived
    Articles and reports: 75-001-X20000014885
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This overview examines the use of RRSPs in the 1990s. It looks at participation, contributions, unused room and withdrawals from RSSps savings.

    Release date: 2000-03-08

  • 30. Earnings of lawyers Archived
    Articles and reports: 75-001-X20000014886
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Earnings of lawyers continue to exceed the overal average. This study presents a profile of lawyers and highlights the changes that have taken place in their demographic characteristics between 1970 and 1995, and in their earnings between 1980 and 1995.

    Release date: 2000-03-08
Reference (11)

Reference (11) (0 to 10 of 11 results)

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 62F0026M2000005
    Description:

    This guide presents information of interest to users of data from the Survey of Household Spending. Data are collected via personal interview conducted in January, February and March after the reference year using a paper questionnaire. Information is gathered about the spending habits, dwelling characteristics and household equipment of Canadian households during the reference year. The survey covers private households in the ten provinces and three territories. (The three territories are surveyed every second year.)

    This guide includes definitions of survey terms and variables and descriptions of survey methodology and data quality. There is also a section describing the various statistics that can be created using expenditure data (e.g., budget share, market share, and aggregates).

    Release date: 2000-12-12

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 75F0002M2000005
    Description:

    This paper describes the collection method and content of the 1999 Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID) income interview.

    Release date: 2000-10-05

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 75F0002M2000011
    Description:

    This report summarizes the comments received in response to a discussion paper on low income cut-offs released in January 2000.

    Release date: 2000-09-26

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 75F0002M2000010
    Description:

    This report explains the concept of income and provides definitions of the various sources of income and derived income variables. It also documents the various aspects of the census that can have an impact on census income estimates.

    Release date: 2000-07-26

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 62F0026M2000001
    Description:

    This guide presents information of interest to users of data from the Survey of Household Spending. Data are collected via personal interviews conducted in January, February and March after the reference year using a paper questionnaire. Information is gathered about the spending habits, dwelling characteristics and household equipment of Canadian households during the reference year. The survey covers private households in the ten provinces and three territories. (The three territories are surveyed every second year.)

    This guide includes definitions of survey terms and variables and descriptions of survey methodology and data quality. There is also a section describing the various statistics that can be created using expenditure data (e.g., budget share, market share, and aggregates).

    Release date: 2000-07-19

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 62F0026M2000002
    Description:

    Starting with the 1997 survey year, the Family Expenditure Survey was replaced by the Survey of Household Spending (SHS). This note provides information to users and prospective users of data from the SHS about the differences between the SHS and the former Family Expenditure Survey. Topics covered include sample size, number of questions, coverage, and concepts.

    Release date: 2000-07-19

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 62F0026M2000003
    Description:

    Starting with the 1997 survey year, the Household Facilities and Equipment Survey was replaced by the Survey of Household Spending (SHS). This note provides information to users and prospective users of data from the SHS about the differences between the SHS and the former Household Facilities and Equipment Survey. Topics covered include sample size, weighting, collection method, reference period, and concepts.

    Release date: 2000-07-19

  • Notices and consultations: 13-605-X20000018519
    Description:

    With the release of the first quarter 2000 of the National Income and Expenditure Accounts the sectoring of federal and provincial government, non-autonomous pension plans has changed. These pension plans are now part of the personal sector. Previously these plans were included in either the federal or provincial government sector accounts.

    Release date: 2000-05-31

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 13F0026M2000001
    Description:

    The intent of this document is to provide an inventory of the surveys, databases, publications, articles and work in progress in Statistics Canada that relate to Canada's retirement income programs. The inventory provides information on publications, output and relevant data elements produced by the surveys and databases. It does not provide an exhaustive description of these data sources, but instead focuses on the information that can be used for purposes of researching/analysing retirement income programs. Some of the information contained does not specifically relate to these programs but might be used as a secondary source when doing research in this area.

    Release date: 2000-03-06

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 75F0002M2000001
    Description:

    This user's guide provides a detailed description of the CD-ROM Income trends in Canada (13F0022XCB). It also provides a glossary, a description of the major concepts as well as an overview of the data source, the Survey of Consumer Finances.

    Release date: 2000-02-02
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