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Analysis (6)

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  • Articles and reports: 41-20-00022023001
    Description: This article uses data from the 2018 Canadian Housing Survey (CHS) to examine health, life satisfaction, and financial hardship among First Nations people living off reserve, Métis and Inuit across housing tenure (owners, renters, or renters in social and affordable housing), housing conditions, and core housing need. Where possible, estimates are presented by Indigenous identity group, gender, and age with those for the non-Indigenous population provided for context.
    Release date: 2023-04-04

  • Stats in brief: 11-627-M2020024

    This infographic presents a portrait of renter households living in social and affordable housing based on the results of the 2018 Canadian Housing Survey.

    Release date: 2020-10-02

  • Articles and reports: 75F0002M2019011

    This article examines the dwelling satisfaction of Canadian households using data from the 2018 Canadian Housing Survey (CHS). In order to provide a high-level overview, the results are presented using geographic area of residence, housing tenure, and dwelling type as an organizing framework.

    Release date: 2019-11-22

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2005252
    Geography: Census metropolitan area

    Numerous studies equate immigrant homeownership with assimilation into the residential mainstream, though only rarely is this claim verified by studying the ethnic character of neighbourhoods where immigrants actually buy homes. In this paper, the 1996 and 2001 Census of Canada master files and bivariate probit models with sample selection corrections (a.k.a. Heckman probit models) are used to assess the neighbourhood-level ethnic determinants of homeownership in Toronto, Canada. By determining whether low levels of ethnic concentration accompany a home purchase, it can be assessed whether immigrants exit their enclaves in search of a home in the 'promised land', as traditional assimilation theory suggests, or if some now seek homes in the 'ethnic communities' that Logan, Alba and Zhang (2002) recently introduced in the American Sociological Review. Assessing the role of concentration under equilibrium conditions, evidence emerges that same-group concentration affects the propensity of several group members to buy homes.

    Release date: 2005-05-26

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2005253
    Geography: Census metropolitan area

    This article summarizes findings from the research paper entitled Are immigrants buying to get in? The role of ethnic clustering on the homeownership propensities of 12 Toronto immigrant groups, 1996-2001. Spatial assimilation theory is a model of status attainment that links the spatial and social positions of minority group members (Massey and Denton 1985). If applied to immigrants, the model would suggest that immigrants would first cluster in typically poor neighbourhoods with high concentrations of co-ethnics, but that ethnic concentration should be temporary and of declining utility. Once an immigrant family's socioeconomic status improves, they should merge into the residential 'mainstream' by moving to a better, and typically less segregated, neighbourhood (Massey and Denton 1985). Further, although housing tenure is not an explicit dimension of spatial assimilation theory, given the well-established relationship between income, human capital and homeownership (Balakrishnan and Wu 1992; Laryea 1999), and the importance of homeownership as an indicator of well-being and residential assimilation (Myers and Lee 1998), part of an immigrant family's socioeconomic ascent should be a shift from tenant to homeowner (Alba and Logan 1992). Spatial assimilation theory would further predict that same-group concentration should be inversely related to homeownership since ethnic enclaves are typically conceived of as poor rental zones (Fong and Gulia 1999; Myles and Hou 2004).

    Recent research (Alba and Nee 2003; Logan, Alba, and Zhang 2002), however, finds that some immigrant groups may be choosing against spatial assimilation to form more durable 'ethnic communities' (Logan, Alba, and Zhang 2002), giving rise to a positive and growing 'enclave effect' on homeownership (Borjas 2002). In this paper, an enclave effect is evaluated as an explanation for the 1996-2001 homeownership patterns of Toronto's 12 largest recent immigrant groups. Using longitudinally-consistent and temporally-antecedent 1996 neighbourhood ethnic composition data this paper aims to determine if immigrants buy homes outside their enclaves or prefer an owner-occupied neighbourhood of same-group members. To this end, the paper discusses the potential benefits of living and buying in an enclave; it develops a predictive framework for determining which groups might benefit from owner-occupied ethnic communities; it also examines the issue of 'neighbourhood disequilibrium' and evaluates the enclave effect on homeownership using a sample of recent (1996-2001) movers, their 1996 neighbourhood ethnic characteristics, and bivariate probit models with sample selection corrections (Van de Ven and Van Praag 1981).

    Release date: 2005-05-26

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X200411013129
    Geography: Canada

    As a large number of people near the traditional retirement age, what are the social and economic consequences of a mass exit from the labour force? Would older workers remain on the job if mandatory retirement policies were eliminated or if, for example, incentives such as part-time work or more vacation leave were offered?

    Release date: 2004-10-26
Reference (2)

Reference (2) ((2 results))

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 62F0026M2005001

    This paper provides some guidance to users on the use of medians and also gives some examples of situations when it can be a more appropriate measure than the average.

    Release date: 2005-05-17

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 92-400-X

    The new product entitled "2001 Census Standard Products Stubsets" provides detailed information about all census variables, by category. It is released on the Internet only.

    This series includes six general reference products: Preview of Products and Services, Census Dictionary, Catalogue, Standard Products Stubsets, Census Handbook and Technical Reports.

    Release date: 2002-06-27
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