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  • Articles and reports: 75F0002M2005010
    Description:

    For some time, Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation (CMHC) has used data on housing characteristics and housing-related expenditures from the Census of Population. Although the Census data source serves CMHC's purposes to a large extent, the federal government agency turned to the annual household surveys of Statistics Canada to provide information on a more frequent basis. This would allow them to have a better picture of annual trends, and perhaps have a greater choice of other characteristics with which to cross housing data on Canadian households. In 2001, CMHC began to sponsor additional content in both the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID) and the Survey of Household Spending (SHS), starting with reference year 2002.

    Release date: 2005-07-22

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X200510313137
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Local government revenues are increasingly perceived as inadequate to fund the program responsibilities of municipalities. Property taxes (residential and non-residential) are by far the most important revenue source, accounting for 35% in 2003 (up from 30% in 1988). But, residential property taxes are commonly viewed as regressive in relation to income. This study uses the 2001 Census of Population to quantify the regressiveness of residential property taxes in Canadian municipalities, and to examine whether regressive taxes are generally attributable to lower-income seniors living in high-priced homes.

    Release date: 2005-06-20

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X200410713124
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This article examines housing costs within the context of income and assets, focusing on elderly homeowners but including younger families and renters for comparison. The low-income dimension is also explored.

    Release date: 2004-09-21

  • Articles and reports: 62F0014M2001015
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    The Canadian Consumer Price Index (CPI) applies a version of the user cost approach to measure the cost of home ownership. Because this approach specifically estimates the costs of using owned accommodation and not those faced by tenants, the measure includes a "replacement cost" (or depreciation) component. Depreciation is the only component in the CPI that is not an out-of-pocket expense. Consequently, economists face a unique set of methodological challenges when measuring depreciation.

    Between 1949 and 1997, the annual housing depreciation rate used in the CPI was 2%. Statistics Canada adopted the rate from a study that analysed U.S. Federal Housing Administration field appraisal data from 1939.

    This study argues that there is evidence that the 2% depreciation rate is too high to continue to use in the future. Consider that: 1) other Canadian studies show an upper bound of 1.7%, with a median estimate of 1.5%; 2) other statistical agencies use lower rates; and 3) every academic study over the past 40 years has arrived at a lower rate. As a consequence of this study and the existing supporting evidence, the depreciation rate in the Canadian CPI was lowered to 1.5% effective January 1998.

    Release date: 2001-11-28
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  • Articles and reports: 75F0002M2005010
    Description:

    For some time, Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation (CMHC) has used data on housing characteristics and housing-related expenditures from the Census of Population. Although the Census data source serves CMHC's purposes to a large extent, the federal government agency turned to the annual household surveys of Statistics Canada to provide information on a more frequent basis. This would allow them to have a better picture of annual trends, and perhaps have a greater choice of other characteristics with which to cross housing data on Canadian households. In 2001, CMHC began to sponsor additional content in both the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID) and the Survey of Household Spending (SHS), starting with reference year 2002.

    Release date: 2005-07-22

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X200510313137
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Local government revenues are increasingly perceived as inadequate to fund the program responsibilities of municipalities. Property taxes (residential and non-residential) are by far the most important revenue source, accounting for 35% in 2003 (up from 30% in 1988). But, residential property taxes are commonly viewed as regressive in relation to income. This study uses the 2001 Census of Population to quantify the regressiveness of residential property taxes in Canadian municipalities, and to examine whether regressive taxes are generally attributable to lower-income seniors living in high-priced homes.

    Release date: 2005-06-20

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X200410713124
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This article examines housing costs within the context of income and assets, focusing on elderly homeowners but including younger families and renters for comparison. The low-income dimension is also explored.

    Release date: 2004-09-21

  • Articles and reports: 62F0014M2001015
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    The Canadian Consumer Price Index (CPI) applies a version of the user cost approach to measure the cost of home ownership. Because this approach specifically estimates the costs of using owned accommodation and not those faced by tenants, the measure includes a "replacement cost" (or depreciation) component. Depreciation is the only component in the CPI that is not an out-of-pocket expense. Consequently, economists face a unique set of methodological challenges when measuring depreciation.

    Between 1949 and 1997, the annual housing depreciation rate used in the CPI was 2%. Statistics Canada adopted the rate from a study that analysed U.S. Federal Housing Administration field appraisal data from 1939.

    This study argues that there is evidence that the 2% depreciation rate is too high to continue to use in the future. Consider that: 1) other Canadian studies show an upper bound of 1.7%, with a median estimate of 1.5%; 2) other statistical agencies use lower rates; and 3) every academic study over the past 40 years has arrived at a lower rate. As a consequence of this study and the existing supporting evidence, the depreciation rate in the Canadian CPI was lowered to 1.5% effective January 1998.

    Release date: 2001-11-28
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