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  • Articles and reports: 81-003-X19960043221
    Geography: Canada

    This article previews the findings of the 1995 School Leavers Follow-up Survey. The information will interest people in areas such as education or youth employment: policy makers, community advocates, teachers, counsellors, administrators, and young people themselves. Included is basic information about the education, training and labour market experiences of youth during the first few years after leaving or graduating from high school. A comprehensive report on school-work transitions among youth will follow later in 1997.

    Release date: 1997-01-27

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M1995082
    Geography: Canada

    Our aim in this paper is to resolve a paradox. Since the 1970s, there has been a downward secular trend in the average real and relative earnings of young adults under the age of 35. Despite the fact that most young children live in households headed by adults under 35, there has been no corresponding secular rise in the incidence of low income among children. Rather child poverty has followed the usual fluctuations of the business cycle.

    We show that the relative stability in child poverty rates in the face of declining labour market earnings is a result of two factors. First, the decline in market income in young households with children has been offset by rising transfers. Since the 1970s, social transfers have replaced earnings as the main source of income among low income families with children.

    Second, changes in the fertility behaviour and labour market characteristics of young adults have sharply reduced the risk of young children growing up in low income households. Today's young parents are better educated, working more hours, having fewer children, and postponing child-birth until later ages when earnings are higher. Although more children do find themselves in single parent families, this change has been swamped by other changes in family patterns and labour market behaviour that have reduced the risk of child poverty.

    Thus, the upward pressure on low income among children stemming from the labour market has been offset by social transfers, on the one hand, and by changes in family formation and the labour market behaviour of young adults, on the other. Except for cyclical variations, the result has been relative stability in the incidence of low income among children over the 1980s and early 1990s. Whether these offsetting patterns will continue in the last half of the 1990s remains to be seen.

    Release date: 1995-09-30

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X199400110
    Geography: Canada

    In recent years, the labour force participation of youths has fallen dramatically. This note explores the labour market conditions for youths both in and out of school and the labour force.

    Release date: 1994-03-02

  • 24. Youth for hire Archived
    Articles and reports: 75-001-X19890022273
    Geography: Canada

    A comparison of youth labour market conditions in 1977 and 1987 shows several important changes. Demographic shifts and rising school attendance rates are among the influences examined. The diverse experiences of students and out-of-school youths, of teenagers and young adults, are highlighted.

    Release date: 1989-06-30
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  • Articles and reports: 75-006-X201700114824

    In this paper, multiple sources of data are used to study the profile and labour market outcomes of young men and women aged 25 to 34 without a high school diploma. The data sources include the Labour Force Survey (LFS), the Canadian Income Survey (CIS) and the Canadian Survey on Disability (CSD).

    Release date: 2017-05-04

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2016377

    It has been well documented that the children of immigrants in Canada outperform their peers with Canadian-born parents in educational attainment, and that the two groups have similar labour market outcomes. However, large variations by ethnicity or source country exist among the children of immigrants. This study examines the extent to which admission class (e.g., skilled workers, business immigrants, live-in caregivers, the family class and refugees) also matters in the socioeconomic outcomes of childhood immigrants who arrived in Canada before the age of 18.

    Release date: 2016-04-25

  • Articles and reports: 75-006-X201300111847
    Geography: Canada

    The social and economic well-being of young people currently generates a lot of interest. Are young people different from previous generations? Do they experience more difficulties in the labour market? Are some doing better than others?

    Release date: 2013-07-04

  • Articles and reports: 11-626-X2013024
    Geography: Canada

    This article in the Economic Insights series examines the differences between youth and adults in terms of unemployment inflow and outflow rates, for a better understanding of the gap between the unemployment rates of youth and adults. Data from the Labour Force Survey from 1977 to 2012 are used for this analysis. The article is part of a series of Economic Insights articles providing information on the evolution of Canada's economy.

    Release date: 2013-06-11

  • Articles and reports: 81-595-M2010087
    Geography: Canada

    This report examines the link between educational pathways and labour market outcomes of youth from all 5 cycles of the Youth in Transition Survey (YITS-Cohort B). The educational pathways are organized according to three major criteria: (1) No postsecondary education, (2) Direct route to postsecondary education, and (3) Indirect route to postsecondary education. Data from Cycle 5 of YITS, when youth were aged 26 to 28, provide a relatively complete examination of labour market outcomes as rising rates of participation in postsecondary education in Canada have led to a delay in entry into the labour market for many young adults. The current report focuses on two labour market outcomes full-year employment and annual earnings' at two different time points -- 1 to 2 years and 5 to 6 years after respondents have left school on a full-time basis. Results highlight the positive influence of a university education on labour market outcomes, especially several years after leaving school. Moreover, there is some weak evidence to suggest that university graduates who delayed going to a postsecondary program were more likely than their counterparts who had not delayed to be employed several years after leaving school.

    Release date: 2010-12-17

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X201010913256
    Geography: Canada

    This article examines long-term trends in employment for postsecondary students. The rate of employment, hours of work and employment earnings of male and female students are covered. How other student characteristics relate to employment is also addressed. Particular attention is paid to student employment during labour market downturns.

    Release date: 2010-09-29

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X200700113177
    Geography: Canada

    The unemployment rate is a well-known barometer of labour-market health. The rise in the national unemployment rate in the years immediately following the high-tech meltdown has been replaced by sustained annual declines. Of course not all parts of the country have shared equally in the improvement. The article tracks the range of unemployment rates for local labour markets (the 28 census metropolitan areas [CMAs] and the 10 provincial non-CMA areas). It also looks at the relative durations of unemployment.

    Release date: 2007-01-25

  • Articles and reports: 81-595-M2004018
    Geography: Canada

    This report looks at high school completion, postsecondary participation and labour market activities of people aged 20 to 22 years. It uses data from the Youth in Transition Survey.

    Release date: 2004-06-16

  • Articles and reports: 89-584-M2003003
    Geography: Canada

    Presented here is an analysis of time use and quality of life that allows us to gain a better understanding of the new transitions young people in Canada are experiencing. Based on a gender analysis, the study shows the impact of paid work on young people's schedules while they are still in school, comparing those in high school with those at the postsecondary level. The same analysis is then applied to those having completed their transition to employment, where studying is no longer their main activity.

    The results suggest that men and women encounter somewhat different experiences. One finding pertains to the pace of the transition. While young men enter the workforce earlier and work more intensely, young women experience a combination of several simultaneous transitions, such as entering a conjugal relationship and having children.

    A second finding is related to the impact on time use of paid work while studying. The analysis reveals that re-organizing daily activities is not simply a matter of substituting work hours for study hours; many other areas are impacted by students working, such as sleep and active leisure time. The effects vary depending on the number of work hours. Women at the postsecondary level working more than 20 hours a week sacrifice more study time.

    A third finding looks into changes in attitudes regarding school-to-work transitions. Quality of life and time perception indicators suggest that introducing paid work into young men's schedules is regarded as an overall improvement in their life. Young women, however, seem adversely affected, suggesting that they are more vulnerable to stress induced by schedule conflicts.

    Release date: 2004-02-25

  • Journals and periodicals: 89-594-X
    Geography: Canada

    This paper uses three cycles of the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (NLSCY) to examine whether parental labour market participation and the use of substitute child-care influence the development of the skills needed by pre-school-aged children in order to begin school. The analysis in this paper is based on the arguments that parent-child interaction fosters the development of the skills needed by pre-school-aged children in order to begin school successfully, and that full-time participation in the work force by lone parents (in one-parent families) and by both parents (in dual-parent families) often results in comparatively less time for parent-child interaction than in families with a stay-at-home parent. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to determine whether reductions in parental time spent with children as a result of work outside the home impact the intellectual development of young children.

    The study indicates that parental participation in the labour market has little effect on the school readiness scores of most pre-school-aged children. However, children's school readiness does appear to be influenced by parental labour market participation if the parents exhibit above-average parenting skills and levels of parental education. Children of mothers who display above-average parenting skills and higher levels of education tend to benefit slightly when their mothers do not work outside the home. Likewise, children of fathers with above-average education exhibit slightly higher cognitive outcomes if their fathers work part time.

    Although the author finds that there is no association between the number of hours that children spend in child care and their level of school readiness, the study does observe that among pre-school children in substitute child-care, those who come from higher-income families tend to score higher on the school readiness tests than do children from lower-income families. This finding may be attributed to the possibility that children in higher-income families are exposed to a higher quality of substitute child-care, or it may be attributed simply to the advantages of growing up in a family with greater resources.

    Release date: 2003-10-23
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  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 81-588-X

    The Youth in Transition Survey (YITS) is a longitudinal survey designed to provide policy-relevant information about school-work transitions and factors influencing pathways. YITS will provide vehicle for future research and analysis of major transitions in young people's lives, particularly those between education, training and work. Information obtained from, and research based on, the survey will help clarify the nature and causes of short and long-term challenges young people face in school-work transitions and support policy planning and decision making to help prevent or remedy these problems.

    Objectives of the Youth in Transition Survey were developed after an extensive consultation with stakeholders with an interest in youth and school-work transitions. Content includes measurement of major transitions in young people's lives including virtually all formal educational experiences and most labour-market experiences. Factors influencing transitions are also included family background, school experiences, achievement, aspirations and expectations, and employment experiences.

    The implementation plan encompasses a longitudinal survey for each of two age cohorts, to be surveyed every two years. Data from a cohort entering at age 15 will permit analysis of long-term school-work transition patterns. Data from a cohort entering at ages18-20 will provide more immediate, policy-relevant information on young adults in the labour market.

    Cycle one for the cohort aged 15 will include information collected from youth, their parents, and school principals. The sample design is a school-based frame that allows the selection of schools, and then individuals within schools. This design will permit analysis of school effects, a research domain not currently addressed by other Statistics Canada surveys. Methods of data collection include a self-completed questionnaire for youth and school principals, a telephone interview with parents, and assessment of youth competency in reading, science and mathematics as using self-completed test booklets provided under the integration of YITS with the OECD Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). A pilot survey was conducted in April 1999 and the main survey took place in April-May 2000. Interviews were conducted with 30,000 students aged 15 from 1,000 schools in Canada. A telephone interview with parents of selected students took place in June 2000.

    The sample design for the cohort aged 18-20 is similar to that of the Labour-Force survey. The method of data collection is computer-assisted telephone interviewing. The pilot survey was conducted in January 1999. In January-February 2000, 23, 000 youth participated in the main survey data collection.

    Data from both cohorts is expected to be available in 2001. Following release of the first international report by the OECD/PISA project and the first national report, data will be publically available, permitting detailed exploration of content themes.

    Release date: 2001-04-11
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