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  • Articles and reports: 75-006-X201700114824
    Description:

    In this paper, multiple sources of data are used to study the profile and labour market outcomes of young men and women aged 25 to 34 without a high school diploma. The data sources include the Labour Force Survey (LFS), the Canadian Income Survey (CIS) and the Canadian Survey on Disability (CSD).

    Release date: 2017-05-04

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2016377
    Description:

    It has been well documented that the children of immigrants in Canada outperform their peers with Canadian-born parents in educational attainment, and that the two groups have similar labour market outcomes. However, large variations by ethnicity or source country exist among the children of immigrants. This study examines the extent to which admission class (e.g., skilled workers, business immigrants, live-in caregivers, the family class and refugees) also matters in the socioeconomic outcomes of childhood immigrants who arrived in Canada before the age of 18.

    Release date: 2016-04-25

  • Articles and reports: 75-006-X201300111847
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    The social and economic well-being of young people currently generates a lot of interest. Are young people different from previous generations? Do they experience more difficulties in the labour market? Are some doing better than others?

    Release date: 2013-07-04

  • Articles and reports: 11-626-X2013024
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This article in the Economic Insights series examines the differences between youth and adults in terms of unemployment inflow and outflow rates, for a better understanding of the gap between the unemployment rates of youth and adults. Data from the Labour Force Survey from 1977 to 2012 are used for this analysis. The article is part of a series of Economic Insights articles providing information on the evolution of Canada's economy.

    Release date: 2013-06-11

  • Articles and reports: 81-595-M2010087
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This report examines the link between educational pathways and labour market outcomes of youth from all 5 cycles of the Youth in Transition Survey (YITS-Cohort B). The educational pathways are organized according to three major criteria: (1) No postsecondary education, (2) Direct route to postsecondary education, and (3) Indirect route to postsecondary education. Data from Cycle 5 of YITS, when youth were aged 26 to 28, provide a relatively complete examination of labour market outcomes as rising rates of participation in postsecondary education in Canada have led to a delay in entry into the labour market for many young adults. The current report focuses on two labour market outcomes full-year employment and annual earnings' at two different time points -- 1 to 2 years and 5 to 6 years after respondents have left school on a full-time basis. Results highlight the positive influence of a university education on labour market outcomes, especially several years after leaving school. Moreover, there is some weak evidence to suggest that university graduates who delayed going to a postsecondary program were more likely than their counterparts who had not delayed to be employed several years after leaving school.

    Release date: 2010-12-17

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X201010913256
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This article examines long-term trends in employment for postsecondary students. The rate of employment, hours of work and employment earnings of male and female students are covered. How other student characteristics relate to employment is also addressed. Particular attention is paid to student employment during labour market downturns.

    Release date: 2010-09-29

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X200700113177
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    The unemployment rate is a well-known barometer of labour-market health. The rise in the national unemployment rate in the years immediately following the high-tech meltdown has been replaced by sustained annual declines. Of course not all parts of the country have shared equally in the improvement. The article tracks the range of unemployment rates for local labour markets (the 28 census metropolitan areas [CMAs] and the 10 provincial non-CMA areas). It also looks at the relative durations of unemployment.

    Release date: 2007-01-25

  • Articles and reports: 81-595-M2004018
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This report looks at high school completion, postsecondary participation and labour market activities of people aged 20 to 22 years. It uses data from the Youth in Transition Survey.

    Release date: 2004-06-16

  • Articles and reports: 89-584-M2003003
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Presented here is an analysis of time use and quality of life that allows us to gain a better understanding of the new transitions young people in Canada are experiencing. Based on a gender analysis, the study shows the impact of paid work on young people's schedules while they are still in school, comparing those in high school with those at the postsecondary level. The same analysis is then applied to those having completed their transition to employment, where studying is no longer their main activity.

    The results suggest that men and women encounter somewhat different experiences. One finding pertains to the pace of the transition. While young men enter the workforce earlier and work more intensely, young women experience a combination of several simultaneous transitions, such as entering a conjugal relationship and having children.

    A second finding is related to the impact on time use of paid work while studying. The analysis reveals that re-organizing daily activities is not simply a matter of substituting work hours for study hours; many other areas are impacted by students working, such as sleep and active leisure time. The effects vary depending on the number of work hours. Women at the postsecondary level working more than 20 hours a week sacrifice more study time.

    A third finding looks into changes in attitudes regarding school-to-work transitions. Quality of life and time perception indicators suggest that introducing paid work into young men's schedules is regarded as an overall improvement in their life. Young women, however, seem adversely affected, suggesting that they are more vulnerable to stress induced by schedule conflicts.

    Release date: 2004-02-25

  • Journals and periodicals: 89-594-X
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This paper uses three cycles of the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (NLSCY) to examine whether parental labour market participation and the use of substitute child-care influence the development of the skills needed by pre-school-aged children in order to begin school. The analysis in this paper is based on the arguments that parent-child interaction fosters the development of the skills needed by pre-school-aged children in order to begin school successfully, and that full-time participation in the work force by lone parents (in one-parent families) and by both parents (in dual-parent families) often results in comparatively less time for parent-child interaction than in families with a stay-at-home parent. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to determine whether reductions in parental time spent with children as a result of work outside the home impact the intellectual development of young children.

    The study indicates that parental participation in the labour market has little effect on the school readiness scores of most pre-school-aged children. However, children's school readiness does appear to be influenced by parental labour market participation if the parents exhibit above-average parenting skills and levels of parental education. Children of mothers who display above-average parenting skills and higher levels of education tend to benefit slightly when their mothers do not work outside the home. Likewise, children of fathers with above-average education exhibit slightly higher cognitive outcomes if their fathers work part time.

    Although the author finds that there is no association between the number of hours that children spend in child care and their level of school readiness, the study does observe that among pre-school children in substitute child-care, those who come from higher-income families tend to score higher on the school readiness tests than do children from lower-income families. This finding may be attributed to the possibility that children in higher-income families are exposed to a higher quality of substitute child-care, or it may be attributed simply to the advantages of growing up in a family with greater resources.

    Release date: 2003-10-23
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  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2001178
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    The school performance of the children of immigrants in the Canadian school system is analyzed using data from the first three waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (NLSCY). School performance is measured in terms of ability at reading, writing, mathematics and overall aptitude. The parents' and teachers' assessments of the children's performances are used, as are the results of formal testing. On average, children of immigrants generally do at least as well as the children of the Canadian-born along each dimension of school performance. The children of immigrant parents whose first language is either English or French have especially high outcomes. The children of other immigrant parents have lower performance in reading, writing and composition but their performance in mathematics is comparable to that of the children of Canadian-born parents. It is also found that with more years in the Canadian education system, the performance of these children in reading, writing and mathematics improves and is equal to or greater than the performance of the children of Canadian-born parents by age thirteen in virtually all areas of performance.

    Release date: 2001-11-14

  • Journals and periodicals: 81-589-X
    Description:

    The report Children and youth at risk documents the proceedings of a symposium held in Ottawa on April 6 and 7, 2000 to explore research and policy issues concerning the education of children who, for whatever reason, are at risk of not meeting the normal expectations of the education system.

    It includes summaries of presentations, discussions and commissioned research papers. The themes and issues are summarized in a synthesis written by Dr. Robert Crocker of the faculty of education at Memorial University of Newfoundland.

    The symposium was held as an activity of the Pan-Canadian Education Research Agenda. The Canadian Education Statistics Council - a partnership between Statistics Canada and the Council of Ministers of Education, Canada - started this research program with a view to promoting research on policy issues in education of concern to researchers, policy-makers and practitioners. Human Resources Development Canada provided financial support for the symposium.

    Release date: 2001-05-22

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X20000014889
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Using data from the Labour Force Survey, this article compares school and work activities, as well as the unemployment and part-time employment rates, of students and non-students. (Adapted from the Autumn 1999 issue of Labour Force.)

    Release date: 2000-03-08

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M1999135
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Two quasi-experiments are used to estimate the impact of parental divorce on the adult incomes and labour market behaviour of adolescents, as well as on their use of social programs, and their marital/fertility behaviour. These involve the use of individuals experiencing the death of a parent, and legislative changes to the Canadian divorce law in 1986. Parental loss by death is assumed to be exogenous; the experiences of children with a bereaved background offering a benchmark to assess the endogeneity of parental loss through divorce. Differences between individuals with divorced parents and those from intact and bereaved families significantly overstate the impact of divorce across a broad range of outcomes. When background characteristics are controlled for-most notably the income and labour market activity of parents in the years leading up to the divorce-parental divorce seems to influence the marital and fertility decisions of children, but not their labour market outcomes. Adolescents whose parents divorced tend to put off marriage, and once married suffer a greater likelihood of marital instability, but their earnings and incomes are not on average much different from others.

    Release date: 1999-06-09

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M1999132
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Child poverty is high on the government's agenda. In order to reduce the rate of low-income among children, one has to either reduce the number of children flowing into low-income, or increase the number flowing out. But what is behind such movement? Most analysts would immediately think of job loss among the parents, but obviously divorce and remarriage can also play a role. In order to favourably alter the flows, one has to have some understanding of what is driving them. This paper asks to what extent this movement of children is determined by (1) changes in family status of the parents of children, or (2) changes in the parent's labour market conditions (i.e. job loss and gain, changes in hours of work or wages). We find that for an individual child, a divorce or marriage can have a tremendous influence on the likelihood of entering or exiting low-income. At the level of the individual, changes in family composition (when they occur) are more important than changes in jobs held by parents. However, changes in family status are relatively infrequent compared to labour market changes. Parents are much more likely to lose or find jobs, and experience changes in hours worked or wages, than they are to marry or divorce. When this is accounted for we find that, in the aggregate, flows of children into and out of low income are associated roughly equally with family compositional changes and changes in wages and hours worked.

    Release date: 1999-04-21

  • Articles and reports: 81-003-X19980034471
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Earlier this decade, labour market conditions for young Canadians aged 15-24 deteriorated significantly. In the late 1980s, youths were more likely to be working than were adults. By 1997, only about half were employed, almost ten percentage points less than adults. Furthermore, when they did find work, youths today are more likely to be working part-time compared to adults and compared to yourths at the start of the decade, leading to reduced pay.

    Release date: 1999-03-31

  • Articles and reports: 89-553-X19980014024
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    In this chapter, we assess the family's role in determining the acquisition of higher education and literacy. More specifically, our objective is to relate individual educational attainment, literacy abilities, and labour market characteristics to parental educational and labour market attributes. We compare different age cohorts and thereby examine relationships between parents and children over more than one generation.

    Release date: 1998-11-05

  • Journals and periodicals: 89-553-X
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    The contributors to this book examine two broad themes related to the well-being of Canadian youth. First, they document the nature of the labour market facing young adults and how it has changed since the early 1970s. Second, the authors examine how families, communities, and the public sector influence some of the ways in which children become successful and self-reliant adults. The motivation for bringing these essays together has to do with the increasing importance of child well-being in public discourse and the development of public policy. The major message to emerge is that the future of Canada's children is both a good news, and a bad news story. Labour markets have changed dramatically, and on average it is now more difficult to obtain a strong foothold that will lead to increasing prosperity. Many young Canadians, however, are well prepared by their family and community backgrounds to deal with these new challenges, and as young parents are in a position to pass this heritage on to their children. However, this has not been the case for an increasingly larger minority, a group whose children in turn may face greater than average challenges in getting ahead in life. A companion volume published in February of 1998 by Statistics Canada called Government finances and generational equity examines the operation of government taxes and transfers from a generational perspective, focusing on the conduct of fiscal policy and the relative status of individuals in successive generations.

    Release date: 1998-11-05

  • Articles and reports: 89-552-M1997001
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This paper examines the distribution of literacy skills for Canadian youth aged 16 to 25, and the underlying factors that influence literacy, such as family background, level of schooling, employment experiences, age and sex.

    Release date: 1997-09-08

  • Articles and reports: 81-003-X19960043221
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This article previews the findings of the 1995 School Leavers Follow-up Survey. The information will interest people in areas such as education or youth employment: policy makers, community advocates, teachers, counsellors, administrators, and young people themselves. Included is basic information about the education, training and labour market experiences of youth during the first few years after leaving or graduating from high school. A comprehensive report on school-work transitions among youth will follow later in 1997.

    Release date: 1997-01-27
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  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 81-588-X
    Description:

    The Youth in Transition Survey (YITS) is a longitudinal survey designed to provide policy-relevant information about school-work transitions and factors influencing pathways. YITS will provide vehicle for future research and analysis of major transitions in young people's lives, particularly those between education, training and work. Information obtained from, and research based on, the survey will help clarify the nature and causes of short and long-term challenges young people face in school-work transitions and support policy planning and decision making to help prevent or remedy these problems.

    Objectives of the Youth in Transition Survey were developed after an extensive consultation with stakeholders with an interest in youth and school-work transitions. Content includes measurement of major transitions in young people's lives including virtually all formal educational experiences and most labour-market experiences. Factors influencing transitions are also included family background, school experiences, achievement, aspirations and expectations, and employment experiences.

    The implementation plan encompasses a longitudinal survey for each of two age cohorts, to be surveyed every two years. Data from a cohort entering at age 15 will permit analysis of long-term school-work transition patterns. Data from a cohort entering at ages18-20 will provide more immediate, policy-relevant information on young adults in the labour market.

    Cycle one for the cohort aged 15 will include information collected from youth, their parents, and school principals. The sample design is a school-based frame that allows the selection of schools, and then individuals within schools. This design will permit analysis of school effects, a research domain not currently addressed by other Statistics Canada surveys. Methods of data collection include a self-completed questionnaire for youth and school principals, a telephone interview with parents, and assessment of youth competency in reading, science and mathematics as using self-completed test booklets provided under the integration of YITS with the OECD Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). A pilot survey was conducted in April 1999 and the main survey took place in April-May 2000. Interviews were conducted with 30,000 students aged 15 from 1,000 schools in Canada. A telephone interview with parents of selected students took place in June 2000.

    The sample design for the cohort aged 18-20 is similar to that of the Labour-Force survey. The method of data collection is computer-assisted telephone interviewing. The pilot survey was conducted in January 1999. In January-February 2000, 23, 000 youth participated in the main survey data collection.

    Data from both cohorts is expected to be available in 2001. Following release of the first international report by the OECD/PISA project and the first national report, data will be publically available, permitting detailed exploration of content themes.

    Release date: 2001-04-11
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