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  • Articles and reports: 75-006-X201300111847
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    The social and economic well-being of young people currently generates a lot of interest. Are young people different from previous generations? Do they experience more difficulties in the labour market? Are some doing better than others?

    Release date: 2013-07-04

  • Articles and reports: 11-626-X2013024
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This article in the Economic Insights series examines the differences between youth and adults in terms of unemployment inflow and outflow rates, for a better understanding of the gap between the unemployment rates of youth and adults. Data from the Labour Force Survey from 1977 to 2012 are used for this analysis. The article is part of a series of Economic Insights articles providing information on the evolution of Canada's economy.

    Release date: 2013-06-11

  • Articles and reports: 81-595-M2010087
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This report examines the link between educational pathways and labour market outcomes of youth from all 5 cycles of the Youth in Transition Survey (YITS-Cohort B). The educational pathways are organized according to three major criteria: (1) No postsecondary education, (2) Direct route to postsecondary education, and (3) Indirect route to postsecondary education. Data from Cycle 5 of YITS, when youth were aged 26 to 28, provide a relatively complete examination of labour market outcomes as rising rates of participation in postsecondary education in Canada have led to a delay in entry into the labour market for many young adults. The current report focuses on two labour market outcomes full-year employment and annual earnings' at two different time points -- 1 to 2 years and 5 to 6 years after respondents have left school on a full-time basis. Results highlight the positive influence of a university education on labour market outcomes, especially several years after leaving school. Moreover, there is some weak evidence to suggest that university graduates who delayed going to a postsecondary program were more likely than their counterparts who had not delayed to be employed several years after leaving school.

    Release date: 2010-12-17

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X201010913256
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This article examines long-term trends in employment for postsecondary students. The rate of employment, hours of work and employment earnings of male and female students are covered. How other student characteristics relate to employment is also addressed. Particular attention is paid to student employment during labour market downturns.

    Release date: 2010-09-29

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X200700113177
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    The unemployment rate is a well-known barometer of labour-market health. The rise in the national unemployment rate in the years immediately following the high-tech meltdown has been replaced by sustained annual declines. Of course not all parts of the country have shared equally in the improvement. The article tracks the range of unemployment rates for local labour markets (the 28 census metropolitan areas [CMAs] and the 10 provincial non-CMA areas). It also looks at the relative durations of unemployment.

    Release date: 2007-01-25

  • Articles and reports: 81-595-M2004018
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This report looks at high school completion, postsecondary participation and labour market activities of people aged 20 to 22 years. It uses data from the Youth in Transition Survey.

    Release date: 2004-06-16

  • Articles and reports: 89-584-M2003003
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Presented here is an analysis of time use and quality of life that allows us to gain a better understanding of the new transitions young people in Canada are experiencing. Based on a gender analysis, the study shows the impact of paid work on young people's schedules while they are still in school, comparing those in high school with those at the postsecondary level. The same analysis is then applied to those having completed their transition to employment, where studying is no longer their main activity.

    The results suggest that men and women encounter somewhat different experiences. One finding pertains to the pace of the transition. While young men enter the workforce earlier and work more intensely, young women experience a combination of several simultaneous transitions, such as entering a conjugal relationship and having children.

    A second finding is related to the impact on time use of paid work while studying. The analysis reveals that re-organizing daily activities is not simply a matter of substituting work hours for study hours; many other areas are impacted by students working, such as sleep and active leisure time. The effects vary depending on the number of work hours. Women at the postsecondary level working more than 20 hours a week sacrifice more study time.

    A third finding looks into changes in attitudes regarding school-to-work transitions. Quality of life and time perception indicators suggest that introducing paid work into young men's schedules is regarded as an overall improvement in their life. Young women, however, seem adversely affected, suggesting that they are more vulnerable to stress induced by schedule conflicts.

    Release date: 2004-02-25

  • Journals and periodicals: 89-594-X
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This paper uses three cycles of the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (NLSCY) to examine whether parental labour market participation and the use of substitute child-care influence the development of the skills needed by pre-school-aged children in order to begin school. The analysis in this paper is based on the arguments that parent-child interaction fosters the development of the skills needed by pre-school-aged children in order to begin school successfully, and that full-time participation in the work force by lone parents (in one-parent families) and by both parents (in dual-parent families) often results in comparatively less time for parent-child interaction than in families with a stay-at-home parent. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to determine whether reductions in parental time spent with children as a result of work outside the home impact the intellectual development of young children.

    The study indicates that parental participation in the labour market has little effect on the school readiness scores of most pre-school-aged children. However, children's school readiness does appear to be influenced by parental labour market participation if the parents exhibit above-average parenting skills and levels of parental education. Children of mothers who display above-average parenting skills and higher levels of education tend to benefit slightly when their mothers do not work outside the home. Likewise, children of fathers with above-average education exhibit slightly higher cognitive outcomes if their fathers work part time.

    Although the author finds that there is no association between the number of hours that children spend in child care and their level of school readiness, the study does observe that among pre-school children in substitute child-care, those who come from higher-income families tend to score higher on the school readiness tests than do children from lower-income families. This finding may be attributed to the possibility that children in higher-income families are exposed to a higher quality of substitute child-care, or it may be attributed simply to the advantages of growing up in a family with greater resources.

    Release date: 2003-10-23

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2001178
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    The school performance of the children of immigrants in the Canadian school system is analyzed using data from the first three waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (NLSCY). School performance is measured in terms of ability at reading, writing, mathematics and overall aptitude. The parents' and teachers' assessments of the children's performances are used, as are the results of formal testing. On average, children of immigrants generally do at least as well as the children of the Canadian-born along each dimension of school performance. The children of immigrant parents whose first language is either English or French have especially high outcomes. The children of other immigrant parents have lower performance in reading, writing and composition but their performance in mathematics is comparable to that of the children of Canadian-born parents. It is also found that with more years in the Canadian education system, the performance of these children in reading, writing and mathematics improves and is equal to or greater than the performance of the children of Canadian-born parents by age thirteen in virtually all areas of performance.

    Release date: 2001-11-14

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X20000014889
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Using data from the Labour Force Survey, this article compares school and work activities, as well as the unemployment and part-time employment rates, of students and non-students. (Adapted from the Autumn 1999 issue of Labour Force.)

    Release date: 2000-03-08
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  • Articles and reports: 75-006-X201300111847
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    The social and economic well-being of young people currently generates a lot of interest. Are young people different from previous generations? Do they experience more difficulties in the labour market? Are some doing better than others?

    Release date: 2013-07-04

  • Articles and reports: 11-626-X2013024
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This article in the Economic Insights series examines the differences between youth and adults in terms of unemployment inflow and outflow rates, for a better understanding of the gap between the unemployment rates of youth and adults. Data from the Labour Force Survey from 1977 to 2012 are used for this analysis. The article is part of a series of Economic Insights articles providing information on the evolution of Canada's economy.

    Release date: 2013-06-11

  • Articles and reports: 81-595-M2010087
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This report examines the link between educational pathways and labour market outcomes of youth from all 5 cycles of the Youth in Transition Survey (YITS-Cohort B). The educational pathways are organized according to three major criteria: (1) No postsecondary education, (2) Direct route to postsecondary education, and (3) Indirect route to postsecondary education. Data from Cycle 5 of YITS, when youth were aged 26 to 28, provide a relatively complete examination of labour market outcomes as rising rates of participation in postsecondary education in Canada have led to a delay in entry into the labour market for many young adults. The current report focuses on two labour market outcomes full-year employment and annual earnings' at two different time points -- 1 to 2 years and 5 to 6 years after respondents have left school on a full-time basis. Results highlight the positive influence of a university education on labour market outcomes, especially several years after leaving school. Moreover, there is some weak evidence to suggest that university graduates who delayed going to a postsecondary program were more likely than their counterparts who had not delayed to be employed several years after leaving school.

    Release date: 2010-12-17

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X201010913256
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This article examines long-term trends in employment for postsecondary students. The rate of employment, hours of work and employment earnings of male and female students are covered. How other student characteristics relate to employment is also addressed. Particular attention is paid to student employment during labour market downturns.

    Release date: 2010-09-29

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X200700113177
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    The unemployment rate is a well-known barometer of labour-market health. The rise in the national unemployment rate in the years immediately following the high-tech meltdown has been replaced by sustained annual declines. Of course not all parts of the country have shared equally in the improvement. The article tracks the range of unemployment rates for local labour markets (the 28 census metropolitan areas [CMAs] and the 10 provincial non-CMA areas). It also looks at the relative durations of unemployment.

    Release date: 2007-01-25

  • Articles and reports: 81-595-M2004018
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This report looks at high school completion, postsecondary participation and labour market activities of people aged 20 to 22 years. It uses data from the Youth in Transition Survey.

    Release date: 2004-06-16

  • Articles and reports: 89-584-M2003003
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Presented here is an analysis of time use and quality of life that allows us to gain a better understanding of the new transitions young people in Canada are experiencing. Based on a gender analysis, the study shows the impact of paid work on young people's schedules while they are still in school, comparing those in high school with those at the postsecondary level. The same analysis is then applied to those having completed their transition to employment, where studying is no longer their main activity.

    The results suggest that men and women encounter somewhat different experiences. One finding pertains to the pace of the transition. While young men enter the workforce earlier and work more intensely, young women experience a combination of several simultaneous transitions, such as entering a conjugal relationship and having children.

    A second finding is related to the impact on time use of paid work while studying. The analysis reveals that re-organizing daily activities is not simply a matter of substituting work hours for study hours; many other areas are impacted by students working, such as sleep and active leisure time. The effects vary depending on the number of work hours. Women at the postsecondary level working more than 20 hours a week sacrifice more study time.

    A third finding looks into changes in attitudes regarding school-to-work transitions. Quality of life and time perception indicators suggest that introducing paid work into young men's schedules is regarded as an overall improvement in their life. Young women, however, seem adversely affected, suggesting that they are more vulnerable to stress induced by schedule conflicts.

    Release date: 2004-02-25

  • Journals and periodicals: 89-594-X
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This paper uses three cycles of the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (NLSCY) to examine whether parental labour market participation and the use of substitute child-care influence the development of the skills needed by pre-school-aged children in order to begin school. The analysis in this paper is based on the arguments that parent-child interaction fosters the development of the skills needed by pre-school-aged children in order to begin school successfully, and that full-time participation in the work force by lone parents (in one-parent families) and by both parents (in dual-parent families) often results in comparatively less time for parent-child interaction than in families with a stay-at-home parent. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to determine whether reductions in parental time spent with children as a result of work outside the home impact the intellectual development of young children.

    The study indicates that parental participation in the labour market has little effect on the school readiness scores of most pre-school-aged children. However, children's school readiness does appear to be influenced by parental labour market participation if the parents exhibit above-average parenting skills and levels of parental education. Children of mothers who display above-average parenting skills and higher levels of education tend to benefit slightly when their mothers do not work outside the home. Likewise, children of fathers with above-average education exhibit slightly higher cognitive outcomes if their fathers work part time.

    Although the author finds that there is no association between the number of hours that children spend in child care and their level of school readiness, the study does observe that among pre-school children in substitute child-care, those who come from higher-income families tend to score higher on the school readiness tests than do children from lower-income families. This finding may be attributed to the possibility that children in higher-income families are exposed to a higher quality of substitute child-care, or it may be attributed simply to the advantages of growing up in a family with greater resources.

    Release date: 2003-10-23

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2001178
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    The school performance of the children of immigrants in the Canadian school system is analyzed using data from the first three waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (NLSCY). School performance is measured in terms of ability at reading, writing, mathematics and overall aptitude. The parents' and teachers' assessments of the children's performances are used, as are the results of formal testing. On average, children of immigrants generally do at least as well as the children of the Canadian-born along each dimension of school performance. The children of immigrant parents whose first language is either English or French have especially high outcomes. The children of other immigrant parents have lower performance in reading, writing and composition but their performance in mathematics is comparable to that of the children of Canadian-born parents. It is also found that with more years in the Canadian education system, the performance of these children in reading, writing and mathematics improves and is equal to or greater than the performance of the children of Canadian-born parents by age thirteen in virtually all areas of performance.

    Release date: 2001-11-14

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X20000014889
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Using data from the Labour Force Survey, this article compares school and work activities, as well as the unemployment and part-time employment rates, of students and non-students. (Adapted from the Autumn 1999 issue of Labour Force.)

    Release date: 2000-03-08
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