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  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X200911013237
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Between 1980 and 2005, parental work time increased by substantial margins, especially for families located at the bottom and in the middle of the earnings distribution. However, this increase occurred against a backdrop of a stronger increase in earnings for families at the top of the earnings distribution. This study finds that high earnings families earned more in 2005 than in 1980 for a given amount of parental work time, likely because of higher wages.

    Release date: 2009-12-17

  • Table: 89-625-X2007001
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Cycle 20 of the General Social Survey (GSS) conducted from June to October 2006, collected detailed information from 23,608 persons aged 15 and older and living in a private household in one of 10 Canadian provinces. The survey focused on information about the respondent's family. This publication presents data on the number of families by family structure by Regions.

    Release date: 2007-08-23

  • Articles and reports: 89-625-X2007002
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Over the past few decades, important social, economic and demographic changes have transformed the lives of Canadians: the decline and control of fertility, the legalization of divorce, an increase in common-law unions, and the entry of women in huge numbers into the labour market. In turn, these transformations have been examined in order to bring to light the extent and consequences of these changes on the family environment.

    Given these changes and trends, the 2006 General Social Survey addressed the question of how young Canadian families are negotiating key transitions on the early years of family life. The nature and timing of transitions such as the establishment and advancing of a career, moving out of the parental home, marriage or common-law union, accumulating assets such as a car or house, family formation and the dissolution of a common-law union or marriage, may be changing as the Canadian economic and social context changes. In addition, the survey explores the kinds of resources young families need and use as they move through these important family transitions.

    This report focuses on two of these key transitions, analyzing first the experiences of respondents who have had, or adopted, a child between 2001 and 2006, and secondly, examining the experiences of those who have had a separation or divorce during that same period. For both transitions, the analysis provides a brief description of those who experienced the change, then explores the services and resources that were used to help families as they move through these transitions.

    Release date: 2007-06-13

  • Articles and reports: 89-001-X20070019644
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    The North American experience with international migration stands in unique contrast to much of the rest of the world. This paper uses microdata drawn from the national censuses of Canada, the United States, and Mexico, and applies the same methodological framework to these data to examine the impact of international migration on the labour market. We find a numerically comparable and statistically significant inverse relation between immigrant-induced shifts in labour supply and wages in each of the three countries: A 10% labour supply shift is associated with about a 3% to 4% opposite-signed change in wages. Despite the similarity in the wage elasticity, the impact of international migration on the wage structure differs significantly across countries. In Canada, international migration substantially narrowed wage inequality because immigrants in Canada tend to be disproportionately high-skilled. In the United States, international migration substantially increased wage inequality because immigrants in the United States tend to be disproportionately low-skilled. In Mexico, however, emigration rates are highest in the middle of the skill distribution and lowest at the extremes. As a result, international migration greatly increased relative wages in the middle of the Mexican skill distribution and lowered relative wages at the extremes. Paradoxically, the large-scale migration of workers from Mexico may have slightly reduced the relative wage of the low-skill workers remaining in that country.

    Release date: 2007-05-25

  • Articles and reports: 89-613-M2006010
    Geography: Census metropolitan area
    Description:

    This report paints a statistical portrait of socio-economic conditions in the Census Metropolitan Areas (CMAs) of Toronto, Montréal and Vancouver. It highlights trends in population growth, suburban growth, commuting, employment, unemployment, immigration, income and low-income and socio-economic conditions among immigrants, Aboriginal People, and others. It uses data from the 1981 to 2001 Censuses of Canada, the 2005 Labour Force Historical Review, and Income in Canada, 2004.

    Release date: 2006-07-20

  • Public use microdata: 95M0016X
    Description:

    This file provides data on the characteristics of the population. The 2001 Census Public Use Microdata Files (PUMFs) contain samples of anonymous responses to the 2001 Census questionnaire. The files have been carefully scrutinized to ensure the complete confidentiality of the individual responses. Three files are available: the Individuals File, the Families File, and the Households and Housing File.

    Microdata files are unique among census products in that they give users access to non-aggregated data. The PUMFs user can group and manipulate these variables to suit data and research requirements. Tabulations excluded from other census products can be created or relationships between variables can be analysed using different statistical tests. PUMFs provide quick access to a comprehensive social and economic database about Canada and its people.

    Most of the subject matter covered by the census is included in the microdata files. To ensure the respondents' anonymity, geographic identifiers have been restricted to provinces/territories and large metropolitan areas.

    Note: Please be advised that errors have been detected in the data for two variables contained on the revised version of this CD-ROM. As well, we have added a unique record identifier called PPSORT, built/included in the file for administrative purposes only.The affected variables are:Income status (2000 low income cut-offs) (INCSTP)Ethnic origin (ETHNICRA)Further details can be found in the "Errata" file offered in several formats on the new, re-issued CD-ROM.Original release date - February 8, 20051rst Correction - released August 24, 20052nd Correction - released April 26, 2006

    Release date: 2006-04-26

  • Articles and reports: 89-613-M2005009
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    The "Trends and Conditions in Census Metropolitan Areas" series of reports provides key background information on Canadian census metropolitan areas (CMAs) for the period 1981 to 2001. Based primarily on census data, this series provides substantial information and analysis on several topics: low income, health, immigration, culture, housing, labour markets, industrial structure, mobility, public transit and commuting, and Aboriginal people. This final assessment summarizes the major findings of the eight reports and evaluates what has been learned. It points out that the series has three key contributions. First, it details how place matters. Census metropolitan areas differ greatly in many indicators, and their economic and social differences are important factors that define them. Accordingly, policy prescriptions affecting cities may need to reflect this diversity. Second, the series contributes substantially to the amount of data and analysis needed to make accurate policy assessments of what may be ailing in Canada's largest cities and where each problem is most acute. Third, it provides benchmarks against which future data 'most notably data from the 2006 Census' can be examined. This summary also briefly discusses some subjects which were not covered in the series, identifying these as data gaps, or areas where more research is needed.

    Release date: 2005-09-21

  • Articles and reports: 89-613-M2005006
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    The report examines employment, unemployment, work activity, earnings, industrial structure, industry concentration and diversity, and human capital and population growth due to immigration and inter-CMA mobility in Census Metropolitan Areas (CMAs) between 1981 and 2001.

    Employment and unemployment rates of Census Metropolitan Area residents in 2001 were at similar levels as twenty years earlier. This despite major changes in the structure of urban economies and in particular the declining importance of manufacturing, and rising employment of business services industries.

    The labour market strength of Canada's largest urban areas varied tremendously in 2001, although the difference between the CMAs with the strongest and weakest labour markets had declined since 1981.

    Immigrants, low-paid workers and young workers lost ground in the labour market between 1981 and 2001. Over the same period women made gains in employment and earnings relative to men.

    University degree holders were highly concentrated in CMAs in 2001. Recent immigrants made a substantial contribution to the growth in the human capital pool in some CMAs between 1996 and 2001. Many small CMAs lost highly educated and young persons to larger CMAs over the same period.

    The report uses the 1981, 1991, and 2001 censuses of Canada, and the 1987-2003 Labour Force Survey.

    Release date: 2005-04-26

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2001159
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    The objective of this paper is to examine the extent to which an individual's use of unemployment insurance (UI) as a young adult is influenced by past experience with the program, and by having had a parent who also collected UI. A major methodological challenge is to determine the extent to which the intergenerational correlation of UI status is "spurious" or causal. Both the time to a first UI claim and the entire sequence of claims over an extended period are examined using two alternative ways of controlling for unobserved heterogeneity. The analysis is based upon longitudinal data on a cohort of young Canadian and Swedish men. It is found that parental use of UI shortens the time to a first UI claim in Canada, but not in Sweden. Subsequent participation in the Canadian program is influenced by parental UI history. In Sweden individual learning through past participation in UI - not family background - is the dominant avenue determining repeated participation.

    Release date: 2001-01-12

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M1999135
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Two quasi-experiments are used to estimate the impact of parental divorce on the adult incomes and labour market behaviour of adolescents, as well as on their use of social programs, and their marital/fertility behaviour. These involve the use of individuals experiencing the death of a parent, and legislative changes to the Canadian divorce law in 1986. Parental loss by death is assumed to be exogenous; the experiences of children with a bereaved background offering a benchmark to assess the endogeneity of parental loss through divorce. Differences between individuals with divorced parents and those from intact and bereaved families significantly overstate the impact of divorce across a broad range of outcomes. When background characteristics are controlled for-most notably the income and labour market activity of parents in the years leading up to the divorce-parental divorce seems to influence the marital and fertility decisions of children, but not their labour market outcomes. Adolescents whose parents divorced tend to put off marriage, and once married suffer a greater likelihood of marital instability, but their earnings and incomes are not on average much different from others.

    Release date: 1999-06-09
Data (14)

Data (14) (0 to 10 of 14 results)

  • Table: 89-625-X2007001
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Cycle 20 of the General Social Survey (GSS) conducted from June to October 2006, collected detailed information from 23,608 persons aged 15 and older and living in a private household in one of 10 Canadian provinces. The survey focused on information about the respondent's family. This publication presents data on the number of families by family structure by Regions.

    Release date: 2007-08-23

  • Public use microdata: 95M0016X
    Description:

    This file provides data on the characteristics of the population. The 2001 Census Public Use Microdata Files (PUMFs) contain samples of anonymous responses to the 2001 Census questionnaire. The files have been carefully scrutinized to ensure the complete confidentiality of the individual responses. Three files are available: the Individuals File, the Families File, and the Households and Housing File.

    Microdata files are unique among census products in that they give users access to non-aggregated data. The PUMFs user can group and manipulate these variables to suit data and research requirements. Tabulations excluded from other census products can be created or relationships between variables can be analysed using different statistical tests. PUMFs provide quick access to a comprehensive social and economic database about Canada and its people.

    Most of the subject matter covered by the census is included in the microdata files. To ensure the respondents' anonymity, geographic identifiers have been restricted to provinces/territories and large metropolitan areas.

    Note: Please be advised that errors have been detected in the data for two variables contained on the revised version of this CD-ROM. As well, we have added a unique record identifier called PPSORT, built/included in the file for administrative purposes only.The affected variables are:Income status (2000 low income cut-offs) (INCSTP)Ethnic origin (ETHNICRA)Further details can be found in the "Errata" file offered in several formats on the new, re-issued CD-ROM.Original release date - February 8, 20051rst Correction - released August 24, 20052nd Correction - released April 26, 2006

    Release date: 2006-04-26

  • Table: 95F0201X1996002
    Description:

    Series Description - The Basic Summary Tabulations Series (1996 Census of Population) provides data based on approximately 75 cross-tabulations of three or four census variables at five very detailed levels of geography. This series shows specific characteristics of the Canadian population considered either as individuals or in terms of their family or household relations, or with a characteristic pertaining to Canadian dwellings. The BSTs provide data based on a 20% sample except for Age, Sex, Marital Status and Common-law Status which are collected from a 100% sample.

    These tables are available on diskette and cover all census variable information such as Demographics; Families (Number, Type and Structure); Structural Type of Dwelling and Household Size; Immigration and Citizenship; Languages (e.g. Mother Tongue); Aboriginal Origins, Ethnic Origin and Visible Minorities (Population Groups); Labour Market Activities and Household Activities (unpaid work); Place of Work and Mode of Transportation; Education; Mobility and Migration; as well as Individual and Family Income.

    For ease in understanding the five levels of geography, the OLC numbers have related the last 3 digits to reflect the different geographies. See the information below.

    **Under Geographic Coverage, we have listed the five geographies with OLC numbers.

    BSTs ending with the following OLC #s represent:

    001 - Canada, Provinces, Territories, Census Divisions and Census Subdivisions002 - Census Metropolitan Areas, Tracted Census Agglomerations and Census Tracts003 - Canada, Provinces, Territories, Federal Electoral Districts (1987 Representation Order) and Enumeration Areas004 - Canada, Provinces, Territories and Federal Electoral Districts (1996 Representation Order)005 - Canada, Provinces, Territories and Forward Sortation Areas

    Release date: 1998-09-09

  • Table: 95F0230X1996001
    Description:

    Series Description - The Basic Summary Tabulations Series (1996 Census of Population) provides data based on approximately 75 cross-tabulations of three or four census variables at five very detailed levels of geography. This series shows specific characteristics of the Canadian population considered either as individuals or in terms of their family or household relations, or with a characteristic pertaining to Canadian dwellings. The BSTs provide data based on a 20% sample except for Age, Sex, Marital Status and Common-law Status which are collected from a 100% sample.

    These tables are available on diskette and cover all census variable information such as Demographics; Families (Number, Type and Structure); Structural Type of Dwelling and Household Size; Immigration and Citizenship; Languages (e.g. Mother Tongue); Aboriginal Origins, Ethnic Origin and Visible Minorities (Population Groups); Labour Market Activities and Household Activities (unpaid work); Place of Work and Mode of Transportation; Education; Mobility and Migration; as well as Individual and Family Income.

    For ease in understanding the five levels of geography, the OLC numbers have related the last 3 digits to reflect the different geographies. See the information below.

    **Under Geographic Coverage, we have listed the five geographies with OLC numbers.

    BSTs ending with the following OLC #s represent:

    001 - Canada, Provinces, Territories, Census Divisions and Census Subdivisions002 - Census Metropolitan Areas, Tracted Census Agglomerations and Census Tracts003 - Canada, Provinces, Territories, Federal Electoral Districts (1987 Representation Order) and Enumeration Areas004 - Canada, Provinces, Territories and Federal Electoral Districts (1996 Representation Order)005 - Canada, Provinces, Territories and Forward Sortation Areas

    Release date: 1998-06-17

  • Table: 95F0230X1996002
    Description:

    Series Description - The Basic Summary Tabulations Series (1996 Census of Population) provides data based on approximately 75 cross-tabulations of three or four census variables at five very detailed levels of geography. This series shows specific characteristics of the Canadian population considered either as individuals or in terms of their family or household relations, or with a characteristic pertaining to Canadian dwellings. The BSTs provide data based on a 20% sample except for Age, Sex, Marital Status and Common-law Status which are collected from a 100% sample.

    These tables are available on diskette and cover all census variable information such as Demographics; Families (Number, Type and Structure); Structural Type of Dwelling and Household Size; Immigration and Citizenship; Languages (e.g. Mother Tongue); Aboriginal Origins, Ethnic Origin and Visible Minorities (Population Groups); Labour Market Activities and Household Activities (unpaid work); Place of Work and Mode of Transportation; Education; Mobility and Migration; as well as Individual and Family Income.

    For ease in understanding the five levels of geography, the OLC numbers have related the last 3 digits to reflect the different geographies. See the information below.

    **Under Geographic Coverage, we have listed the five geographies with OLC numbers.

    BSTs ending with the following OLC #s represent:

    001 - Canada, Provinces, Territories, Census Divisions and Census Subdivisions002 - Census Metropolitan Areas, Tracted Census Agglomerations and Census Tracts003 - Canada, Provinces, Territories, Federal Electoral Districts (1987 Representation Order) and Enumeration Areas004 - Canada, Provinces, Territories and Federal Electoral Districts (1996 Representation Order)005 - Canada, Provinces, Territories and Forward Sortation Areas

    Release date: 1998-06-17

  • Table: 95F0230X1996003
    Description:

    Series Description - The Basic Summary Tabulations Series (1996 Census of Population) provides data based on approximately 75 cross-tabulations of three or four census variables at five very detailed levels of geography. This series shows specific characteristics of the Canadian population considered either as individuals or in terms of their family or household relations, or with a characteristic pertaining to Canadian dwellings. The BSTs provide data based on a 20% sample except for Age, Sex, Marital Status and Common-law Status which are collected from a 100% sample.

    These tables are available on diskette and cover all census variable information such as Demographics; Families (Number, Type and Structure); Structural Type of Dwelling and Household Size; Immigration and Citizenship; Languages (e.g. Mother Tongue); Aboriginal Origins, Ethnic Origin and Visible Minorities (Population Groups); Labour Market Activities and Household Activities (unpaid work); Place of Work and Mode of Transportation; Education; Mobility and Migration; as well as Individual and Family Income.

    For ease in understanding the five levels of geography, the OLC numbers have related the last 3 digits to reflect the different geographies. See the information below.

    **Under Geographic Coverage, we have listed the five geographies with OLC numbers.

    BSTs ending with the following OLC #s represent:

    001 - Canada, Provinces, Territories, Census Divisions and Census Subdivisions002 - Census Metropolitan Areas, Tracted Census Agglomerations and Census Tracts003 - Canada, Provinces, Territories, Federal Electoral Districts (1987 Representation Order) and Enumeration Areas004 - Canada, Provinces, Territories and Federal Electoral Districts (1996 Representation Order)005 - Canada, Provinces, Territories and Forward Sortation Areas

    Release date: 1998-06-17

  • Table: 95F0230X1996004
    Description:

    Series Description - The Basic Summary Tabulations Series (1996 Census of Population) provides data based on approximately 75 cross-tabulations of three or four census variables at five very detailed levels of geography. This series shows specific characteristics of the Canadian population considered either as individuals or in terms of their family or household relations, or with a characteristic pertaining to Canadian dwellings. The BSTs provide data based on a 20% sample except for Age, Sex, Marital Status and Common-law Status which are collected from a 100% sample.

    These tables are available on diskette and cover all census variable information such as Demographics; Families (Number, Type and Structure); Structural Type of Dwelling and Household Size; Immigration and Citizenship; Languages (e.g. Mother Tongue); Aboriginal Origins, Ethnic Origin and Visible Minorities (Population Groups); Labour Market Activities and Household Activities (unpaid work); Place of Work and Mode of Transportation; Education; Mobility and Migration; as well as Individual and Family Income.

    For ease in understanding the five levels of geography, the OLC numbers have related the last 3 digits to reflect the different geographies. See the information below.

    **Under Geographic Coverage, we have listed the five geographies with OLC numbers.

    BSTs ending with the following OLC #s represent:

    001 - Canada, Provinces, Territories, Census Divisions and Census Subdivisions002 - Census Metropolitan Areas, Tracted Census Agglomerations and Census Tracts003 - Canada, Provinces, Territories, Federal Electoral Districts (1987 Representation Order) and Enumeration Areas004 - Canada, Provinces, Territories and Federal Electoral Districts (1996 Representation Order)005 - Canada, Provinces, Territories and Forward Sortation Areas

    Release date: 1998-06-17

  • Table: 95F0230X1996005
    Description:

    Series Description - The Basic Summary Tabulations Series (1996 Census of Population) provides data based on approximately 75 cross-tabulations of three or four census variables at five very detailed levels of geography. This series shows specific characteristics of the Canadian population considered either as individuals or in terms of their family or household relations, or with a characteristic pertaining to Canadian dwellings. The BSTs provide data based on a 20% sample except for Age, Sex, Marital Status and Common-law Status which are collected from a 100% sample.

    These tables are available on diskette and cover all census variable information such as Demographics; Families (Number, Type and Structure); Structural Type of Dwelling and Household Size; Immigration and Citizenship; Languages (e.g. Mother Tongue); Aboriginal Origins, Ethnic Origin and Visible Minorities (Population Groups); Labour Market Activities and Household Activities (unpaid work); Place of Work and Mode of Transportation; Education; Mobility and Migration; as well as Individual and Family Income.

    For ease in understanding the five levels of geography, the OLC numbers have related the last 3 digits to reflect the different geographies. See the information below.

    **Under Geographic Coverage, we have listed the five geographies with OLC numbers.

    BSTs ending with the following OLC #s represent:

    001 - Canada, Provinces, Territories, Census Divisions and Census Subdivisions002 - Census Metropolitan Areas, Tracted Census Agglomerations and Census Tracts003 - Canada, Provinces, Territories, Federal Electoral Districts (1987 Representation Order) and Enumeration Areas004 - Canada, Provinces, Territories and Federal Electoral Districts (1996 Representation Order)005 - Canada, Provinces, Territories and Forward Sortation Areas

    Release date: 1998-06-17

  • Table: 95F0234X1996001
    Description:

    Series Description - The Basic Summary Tabulations Series (1996 Census of Population) provides data based on approximately 75 cross-tabulations of three or four census variables at five very detailed levels of geography. This series shows specific characteristics of the Canadian population considered either as individuals or in terms of their family or household relations, or with a characteristic pertaining to Canadian dwellings. The BSTs provide data based on a 20% sample except for Age, Sex, Marital Status and Common-law Status which are collected from a 100% sample.

    These tables are available on diskette and cover all census variable information such as Demographics; Families (Number, Type and Structure); Structural Type of Dwelling and Household Size; Immigration and Citizenship; Languages (e.g. Mother Tongue); Aboriginal Origins, Ethnic Origin and Visible Minorities (Population Groups); Labour Market Activities and Household Activities (unpaid work); Place of Work and Mode of Transportation; Education; Mobility and Migration; as well as Individual and Family Income.

    For ease in understanding the five levels of geography, the OLC numbers have related the last 3 digits to reflect the different geographies. See the information below.

    **Under Geographic Coverage, we have listed the five geographies with OLC numbers.

    BSTs ending with the following OLC #s represent:

    001 - Canada, Provinces, Territories, Census Divisions and Census Subdivisions002 - Census Metropolitan Areas, Tracted Census Agglomerations and Census Tracts003 - Canada, Provinces, Territories, Federal Electoral Districts (1987 Representation Order) and Enumeration Areas004 - Canada, Provinces, Territories and Federal Electoral Districts (1996 Representation Order)005 - Canada, Provinces, Territories and Forward Sortation Areas

    Release date: 1998-06-17

  • Table: 95F0234X1996002
    Description:

    Series Description - The Basic Summary Tabulations Series (1996 Census of Population) provides data based on approximately 75 cross-tabulations of three or four census variables at five very detailed levels of geography. This series shows specific characteristics of the Canadian population considered either as individuals or in terms of their family or household relations, or with a characteristic pertaining to Canadian dwellings. The BSTs provide data based on a 20% sample except for Age, Sex, Marital Status and Common-law Status which are collected from a 100% sample.

    These tables are available on diskette and cover all census variable information such as Demographics; Families (Number, Type and Structure); Structural Type of Dwelling and Household Size; Immigration and Citizenship; Languages (e.g. Mother Tongue); Aboriginal Origins, Ethnic Origin and Visible Minorities (Population Groups); Labour Market Activities and Household Activities (unpaid work); Place of Work and Mode of Transportation; Education; Mobility and Migration; as well as Individual and Family Income.

    For ease in understanding the five levels of geography, the OLC numbers have related the last 3 digits to reflect the different geographies. See the information below.

    **Under Geographic Coverage, we have listed the five geographies with OLC numbers.

    BSTs ending with the following OLC #s represent:

    001 - Canada, Provinces, Territories, Census Divisions and Census Subdivisions002 - Census Metropolitan Areas, Tracted Census Agglomerations and Census Tracts003 - Canada, Provinces, Territories, Federal Electoral Districts (1987 Representation Order) and Enumeration Areas004 - Canada, Provinces, Territories and Federal Electoral Districts (1996 Representation Order)005 - Canada, Provinces, Territories and Forward Sortation Areas

    Release date: 1998-06-17
Analysis (13)

Analysis (13) (10 to 20 of 13 results)

  • Articles and reports: 89-553-X19980014021
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    The focus of this chapter is on the extent and nature of intergenerational income mobility, that is the degree to which an individual's income (as an adult) is related to the income earned by his or her parents (during the individual's childhood). As such our analysis is related to the economic literature surveyed for example in Becker and Tomes (1986), and more recently by Björklund and Jäntti (1997). However, we follow Hill and Duncan (1987) in suggesting that distinguishing between the various components of a family's income provides a way of incorporating both economic and sociological explanations into an empirical model of income mobility.

    Release date: 1998-11-05

  • Articles and reports: 89-553-X19980014026
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    To some important degree young people establish their living arrangements in response to the constraints and opportunities created for them by previous generations. In fact, the very definition of what it means to be a youth is at the core of this intergenerational relationship since it determines the appropriate way for people to live when they are of a particular age. The nature of the family, the structure of the school system, and the opportunities for work are the central institutions determining the transition to adulthood, and the associated living arrangements.

    Release date: 1998-11-05

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M1995082
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Our aim in this paper is to resolve a paradox. Since the 1970s, there has been a downward secular trend in the average real and relative earnings of young adults under the age of 35. Despite the fact that most young children live in households headed by adults under 35, there has been no corresponding secular rise in the incidence of low income among children. Rather child poverty has followed the usual fluctuations of the business cycle.

    We show that the relative stability in child poverty rates in the face of declining labour market earnings is a result of two factors. First, the decline in market income in young households with children has been offset by rising transfers. Since the 1970s, social transfers have replaced earnings as the main source of income among low income families with children.

    Second, changes in the fertility behaviour and labour market characteristics of young adults have sharply reduced the risk of young children growing up in low income households. Today's young parents are better educated, working more hours, having fewer children, and postponing child-birth until later ages when earnings are higher. Although more children do find themselves in single parent families, this change has been swamped by other changes in family patterns and labour market behaviour that have reduced the risk of child poverty.

    Thus, the upward pressure on low income among children stemming from the labour market has been offset by social transfers, on the one hand, and by changes in family formation and the labour market behaviour of young adults, on the other. Except for cyclical variations, the result has been relative stability in the incidence of low income among children over the 1980s and early 1990s. Whether these offsetting patterns will continue in the last half of the 1990s remains to be seen.

    Release date: 1995-09-30
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