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  • Journals and periodicals: 89-604-X
    Description:

    Literacy for Life, is the second report from the Adult Literacy and Life Skills Survey. It presents additional results on the nature and magnitude of the literacy gaps faced by OECD countries and how these gaps have evolved over the medium term.

    It offers new insights into the factors that influence the formation of adult skills in various settings - at home and at work - for the eleven countries participating in the first and last round of data collection between 2003 and 2008. The study offers comparative evidence on the impact of various factors on the supply of skill. The study offers a special focus on numeracy skills and problem solving skills. It explores the relationships between numeracy and key socio-demographic factors as well as labour market outcomes and earnings.

    It highlights the importance of problem solving skills by defining this foundational skill and by exploring its determinants as well as its relative role in influencing important labour market outcomes.

    The report offers also an analysis of performance across multiple skill domains. It investigates the skill profiles of various population groups defined in terms of the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of those who score at levels deemed to be low in one or more skill domains and explores the resulting consequences.

    The report concludes by investigating the issue of skill mismatch in the labour market and its relationship to adult learning. The extent and distribution of mismatch between the day to day literacy related requirements of workers and the literacy skills they have obtained is an important issue that is being explored in this study.

    Release date: 2011-12-20

  • Articles and reports: 21-006-X2008008
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    One of the most common terms in economic and social reporting is that of "labour market". This concept is normally used with two main connotations, which to some extent overlap. The first emphasizes a set of employment norms, practices and trends that are in some cases specific to certain occupations or industries. The second connotation emphasizes the spatial dimension of the market, as the geographic area in which a multitude of labour activities occur. In this bulletin, our focus is on this second aspect: we identify a set of self-contained labour areas (SLAs), which in broad terms can be described as geographic spaces in which the majority of the residents in the labour force also have their place of work.

    Release date: 2011-12-19

  • Articles and reports: 71-588-X2011003
    Description:

    This report provides an overview of the labour market outcomes of Aboriginal people during and after the labour market downturn. It covers the period of 2008 to 2010, using annual averages by several demographic and labour market activity indicators available from the Labour Force Survey (LFS). It is divided by age group, as well as, when possible, by the Aboriginal identity groups: First Nations people living off-reserve and Métis. The Inuit population are included in the Aboriginal total but not separately as most estimates for this group were not reliable. The report also distinguishes Aboriginal labour market outcomes by gender, province or region and job characteristics such as industry, occupation, hours worked and highest level of education attained.

    Release date: 2011-11-23

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2011073
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This paper examines how the nature of self-employment may have changed, by comparing the labour market transition rates for males (between non-employment, paid employment, own-account self-employment, and self-employment with paid help) in two panels of the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID): the 1993-1998 panel and the 2002-2007 panel. An econometric model is then estimated for the purpose of characterizing the change further.

    Release date: 2011-10-20

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2011338
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This paper examines the labour market benefits associated with becoming a citizen of the host country, in this case Canada or the United States. Recent international research indicates that there is an economic return to acquiring citizenship. In addition, the paper examines the rising gap in the citizenship rate between Canada and the United States and examines the differences in individual and region characteristics of immigrants as a possibility for explaining changes in the citizenship rate gap.

    Release date: 2011-10-12

  • Articles and reports: 89-503-X201000111527
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    The chapter provided a statistical overview of the demographic and socio-economic characteristics of the female visible minority population in Canada. Drawing mainly data from the 2006 Census, the chapter looked at the growth and the geographical distribution of the population, its family situation and language characteristics as well as its diversity in terms of generational status and country of birth. The chapter also presented results of the analysis on educational attainment, labour market experience and economic well-being such as earnings and components of income. The analyses compared the situations of visible minority women with those of women who did not report visible minority status and those of visible minority men. Where applicable, immigrant status was taken into account in the examination of the experience of visible minority women, i.e., comparison was made between visible minority women who were born in Canada and those who came to live as immigrants. As well, the differences among the groups that made up the visible minority population were highlighted.

    Release date: 2011-07-26

  • 7. Immigrant Women Archived
    Articles and reports: 89-503-X201000111528
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    The chapter provided a statistical overview of the demographic and socio-economic characteristics of the immigrant women in Canada. Drawing data from the censuses and administrative sources, the chapter looked at the socio-demographic trends of the female population who came to live in Canada as immigrants. The information included growth and geographic distribution of the female immigrant population, the changing make-up of immigrant women in terms of their language profile, country of birth and visible minority status, as well as the categories under which female permanent residents were admitted to Canada. The socio-economic conditions of immigrant women, such as educational attainment, field of study, occupational group, labour market participation, earnings and component of income were examined and compared with women who were born in Canada. While census was the main data source for the analysis of the population's socio-economic situations, where applicable, data from the Labour Force Survey and the Longitudinal Immigration Data Base were also included.

    Release date: 2011-07-26

  • Articles and reports: 81-004-X201100211490
    Description:

    Previous analysis based on data from the Youth in Transition Survey (YITS) has shown that reading proficiency, as measured in the Programme for the International Student Assessment (PISA) at age 15, is strongly associated with both high school graduation and postsecondary participation. This article uses the most recent data from YITS, collected when youth were age 25, to examine educational, labour market, income and family formation outcomes associated with reading proficiency levels on PISA at age 15. The intent of the analysis is to identify any life-path differences that were associated with reading proficiency levels at age 15. The analysis is descriptive and exploratory in nature. Further analysis is needed to identify causal relationships in the data.

    Release date: 2011-06-27

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2011331
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This paper reviews recent research on the determinants of the labour market outcomes of the children of immigrants in Canada and in the U.S. New research on outcomes in Canada is also presented. In the aggregate, and with no controls, the labour market outcomes of the second generation-the children of immigrants-are equal to, or better than, those of the third-and-higher generations-the children of domestic-born parents. However, the story is somewhat different after one has accounted for the superior educational levels and the residential locations of the second generation. In the U.S, the second generation's advantage in labour market outcomes disappears; in Canada, among second-generation members of a visible-minority group, the advantage turns marginally negative. Ethnic group/source region differences in outcomes loom large in both countries. The important determinants of the earnings gap between the second generation and the third-and-higher generations include educational attainment, which accounts for about half of the wage gap, residential location, ethnic background, the degree of "ethnic capital," and the educational and earnings mobility between immigrants and their children.

    Release date: 2011-03-03

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X201100111410
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    The Canadian labour market recently experienced its most significant downturn since the 1990 - 1992 recession. Although employment rebounded more quickly than during the downturns of the early 1980s and early 1990s, the number of individuals without a job remains significantly higher than at the beginning of the downturn. This article investigates how various categories of non-workers grew in the past two years. It also discusses alternative measures of unemployment that include some of these categories in the calculations. Several of the alternative measures also include part-time workers who would prefer to work full time.

    Release date: 2011-02-23
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  • Journals and periodicals: 89-604-X
    Description:

    Literacy for Life, is the second report from the Adult Literacy and Life Skills Survey. It presents additional results on the nature and magnitude of the literacy gaps faced by OECD countries and how these gaps have evolved over the medium term.

    It offers new insights into the factors that influence the formation of adult skills in various settings - at home and at work - for the eleven countries participating in the first and last round of data collection between 2003 and 2008. The study offers comparative evidence on the impact of various factors on the supply of skill. The study offers a special focus on numeracy skills and problem solving skills. It explores the relationships between numeracy and key socio-demographic factors as well as labour market outcomes and earnings.

    It highlights the importance of problem solving skills by defining this foundational skill and by exploring its determinants as well as its relative role in influencing important labour market outcomes.

    The report offers also an analysis of performance across multiple skill domains. It investigates the skill profiles of various population groups defined in terms of the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of those who score at levels deemed to be low in one or more skill domains and explores the resulting consequences.

    The report concludes by investigating the issue of skill mismatch in the labour market and its relationship to adult learning. The extent and distribution of mismatch between the day to day literacy related requirements of workers and the literacy skills they have obtained is an important issue that is being explored in this study.

    Release date: 2011-12-20

  • Articles and reports: 21-006-X2008008
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    One of the most common terms in economic and social reporting is that of "labour market". This concept is normally used with two main connotations, which to some extent overlap. The first emphasizes a set of employment norms, practices and trends that are in some cases specific to certain occupations or industries. The second connotation emphasizes the spatial dimension of the market, as the geographic area in which a multitude of labour activities occur. In this bulletin, our focus is on this second aspect: we identify a set of self-contained labour areas (SLAs), which in broad terms can be described as geographic spaces in which the majority of the residents in the labour force also have their place of work.

    Release date: 2011-12-19

  • Articles and reports: 71-588-X2011003
    Description:

    This report provides an overview of the labour market outcomes of Aboriginal people during and after the labour market downturn. It covers the period of 2008 to 2010, using annual averages by several demographic and labour market activity indicators available from the Labour Force Survey (LFS). It is divided by age group, as well as, when possible, by the Aboriginal identity groups: First Nations people living off-reserve and Métis. The Inuit population are included in the Aboriginal total but not separately as most estimates for this group were not reliable. The report also distinguishes Aboriginal labour market outcomes by gender, province or region and job characteristics such as industry, occupation, hours worked and highest level of education attained.

    Release date: 2011-11-23

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2011073
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This paper examines how the nature of self-employment may have changed, by comparing the labour market transition rates for males (between non-employment, paid employment, own-account self-employment, and self-employment with paid help) in two panels of the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID): the 1993-1998 panel and the 2002-2007 panel. An econometric model is then estimated for the purpose of characterizing the change further.

    Release date: 2011-10-20

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2011338
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This paper examines the labour market benefits associated with becoming a citizen of the host country, in this case Canada or the United States. Recent international research indicates that there is an economic return to acquiring citizenship. In addition, the paper examines the rising gap in the citizenship rate between Canada and the United States and examines the differences in individual and region characteristics of immigrants as a possibility for explaining changes in the citizenship rate gap.

    Release date: 2011-10-12

  • Articles and reports: 89-503-X201000111527
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    The chapter provided a statistical overview of the demographic and socio-economic characteristics of the female visible minority population in Canada. Drawing mainly data from the 2006 Census, the chapter looked at the growth and the geographical distribution of the population, its family situation and language characteristics as well as its diversity in terms of generational status and country of birth. The chapter also presented results of the analysis on educational attainment, labour market experience and economic well-being such as earnings and components of income. The analyses compared the situations of visible minority women with those of women who did not report visible minority status and those of visible minority men. Where applicable, immigrant status was taken into account in the examination of the experience of visible minority women, i.e., comparison was made between visible minority women who were born in Canada and those who came to live as immigrants. As well, the differences among the groups that made up the visible minority population were highlighted.

    Release date: 2011-07-26

  • 7. Immigrant Women Archived
    Articles and reports: 89-503-X201000111528
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    The chapter provided a statistical overview of the demographic and socio-economic characteristics of the immigrant women in Canada. Drawing data from the censuses and administrative sources, the chapter looked at the socio-demographic trends of the female population who came to live in Canada as immigrants. The information included growth and geographic distribution of the female immigrant population, the changing make-up of immigrant women in terms of their language profile, country of birth and visible minority status, as well as the categories under which female permanent residents were admitted to Canada. The socio-economic conditions of immigrant women, such as educational attainment, field of study, occupational group, labour market participation, earnings and component of income were examined and compared with women who were born in Canada. While census was the main data source for the analysis of the population's socio-economic situations, where applicable, data from the Labour Force Survey and the Longitudinal Immigration Data Base were also included.

    Release date: 2011-07-26

  • Articles and reports: 81-004-X201100211490
    Description:

    Previous analysis based on data from the Youth in Transition Survey (YITS) has shown that reading proficiency, as measured in the Programme for the International Student Assessment (PISA) at age 15, is strongly associated with both high school graduation and postsecondary participation. This article uses the most recent data from YITS, collected when youth were age 25, to examine educational, labour market, income and family formation outcomes associated with reading proficiency levels on PISA at age 15. The intent of the analysis is to identify any life-path differences that were associated with reading proficiency levels at age 15. The analysis is descriptive and exploratory in nature. Further analysis is needed to identify causal relationships in the data.

    Release date: 2011-06-27

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2011331
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This paper reviews recent research on the determinants of the labour market outcomes of the children of immigrants in Canada and in the U.S. New research on outcomes in Canada is also presented. In the aggregate, and with no controls, the labour market outcomes of the second generation-the children of immigrants-are equal to, or better than, those of the third-and-higher generations-the children of domestic-born parents. However, the story is somewhat different after one has accounted for the superior educational levels and the residential locations of the second generation. In the U.S, the second generation's advantage in labour market outcomes disappears; in Canada, among second-generation members of a visible-minority group, the advantage turns marginally negative. Ethnic group/source region differences in outcomes loom large in both countries. The important determinants of the earnings gap between the second generation and the third-and-higher generations include educational attainment, which accounts for about half of the wage gap, residential location, ethnic background, the degree of "ethnic capital," and the educational and earnings mobility between immigrants and their children.

    Release date: 2011-03-03

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X201100111410
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    The Canadian labour market recently experienced its most significant downturn since the 1990 - 1992 recession. Although employment rebounded more quickly than during the downturns of the early 1980s and early 1990s, the number of individuals without a job remains significantly higher than at the beginning of the downturn. This article investigates how various categories of non-workers grew in the past two years. It also discusses alternative measures of unemployment that include some of these categories in the calculations. Several of the alternative measures also include part-time workers who would prefer to work full time.

    Release date: 2011-02-23
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