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  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2000123
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Recent studies have demonstrated the quantitative importance of entry, exit, growth and decline in the industrial population. It is this turnover that rewards innovative activity and contributes to productivity growth.

    While the size of the entry population is impressive - especially when cumulated over time - the importance of entry is ultimately due to its impact on innovation in the economy. Experimentation is important in a dynamic, market-based economy. A key part of the experimentation comes from entrants. New entrepreneurs constantly offer consumers new products both in terms of the basic good and the level of service that accompanies it.

    This experimentation is associated with significant costs since many entrants fail. Young firms are most at risk of failure; data drawn from a longitudinal file of Canadian entrants in both the goods and service sectors show that over half the new firms that fail do so in the first two years of life. Life is short for the majority of entrants. Only 1 in 5 new firms survive to their tenth birthday.

    Since so many entrants fall by the wayside, it is of inherent interest to understand the conditions that are associated with success, the conditions that allow the potential in new entrepreneurs to come to fruition. The success of an entrant is due to its choosing the correct combination of strategies and activities. To understand how these capabilities contribute to growth, it is necessary to study how the performance of entrants relates to differences in strategies and pursued activities.

    This paper describes the environment and the characteristics of entrants that manage to survive and grow. In doing so, it focuses on two issues. The first is the innovativeness of entrants and the extent to which their growth depends on their innovativeness. The second is to outline how the stress on worker skills, which is partially related to training, complements innovation and contributes to growth.

    Release date: 2000-12-08

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2000140
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    The correlation of occupational gender composition and wages is the basis of pay equity/comparable worth legislation. A number of previous studies have examined this correlation in US data, identifying some of the determinants of low wages in "female jobs", as well as important limitations of public policy in this area. There is little evidence, however, from other jurisdictions. This omission is particularly disturbing in the case of Canada, which now has some of the most extensive pay equity legislation in the world. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive picture, circa the late 1980's, of the occupational gender segregation in Canada and its consequences for wages. We also draw explicit comparisons of our findings to evidence for the United States. We find that the link between female wages and gender composition is much stronger in the United States than in Canada, where it is generally small and not statistically significant. The relatively more advantageous position of women in female jobs in Canada is found to be linked to higher unionization rates and the industry-wage effects of "public goods" sectors.

    Release date: 2000-09-05

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2000150
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Using a comprehensive micro-database of Canadian firms in conjunction with industry-level data on commodity flows, we develop a profile of corporate diversification within the Canadian economy. Our analysis has two major objectives.

    First, we decompose corporate diversification into horizontal and vertical components based on the degree to which industries are linked by inter-industry trade flows. Horizontal and vertical decompositions serve as useful proxies for the strategic factors that underlie diversification strategies.

    Our second objective is to ascertain whether diversification patterns are closely associated with certain industry characteristics. Here we consider industry-level factors that are generally posited to affect the level of diversification (e.g., growth, concentration, knowledge-intensity) along with other variables designed to evaluate whether diversified ownership structures are associated with inter-industry commodity flows. Our regression analysis draws on three empirical measures of diversification: first, the amount of total entropy (i.e., diversification) within an industry; second, the average entropy per firm; and last, the percentage of firms within an industry that diversify.

    Release date: 2000-06-16

  • Articles and reports: 75F0033M2000001
    Geography: Province or territory
    Description:

    This report summarizes a study that was undertaken to ascertain the state of the voluntary sector in Ontario.

    Release date: 2000-05-15

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 12-001-X19990024878
    Description:

    In his paper Fritz Scheuren considers the possible uses of administrative records to enhance and improve population censuses. After reviewing previous uses of administrative records in an international context, he puts forward several proposals for research and development towards increased use of administrative records in the American statistical system.

    Release date: 2000-03-01

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2000143
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This paper explores differences between innovative and non-innovative establishments in business service industries. It focuses on small establishments that supply core technical inputs to other firms: establishments in computer and related services, engineering, and other scientific and technical services.

    The analysis begins by examining the incidence of innovation within the small firm population. Forty percent of small businesses report introducing new or improved products, processes or organizational forms. Among these businesses, product innovation dominates over process or organizational change. A majority of these establishments reveal an ongoing commitment to innovation programs by introducing innovations on a regular basis. By contrast, businesses that do not introduce new or improved products, processes or organizational methods reveal little supporting evidence of innovation activity.

    The paper then investigates differences in strategic intensity between innovative and non-innovative businesses. Innovators attach greater importance to financial management and capital acquisition. Innovators also place more emphasis on recruiting skilled labour and on promoting incentive compensation. These distinctions are sensible - among small firms in R&D-intensive industries, financing and human resource competencies play a critical role in the innovation process.

    A final section examines whether the obstacles to innovation differ between innovators and non-innovators. Innovators are more likely to report difficulties related to market success, imitation, and skill restrictions. Evidence of learning-by-doing is more apparent within a multivariate framework. The probability of encountering risk-related obstacles and input restrictions is higher among establishments that engage in R&D and use intellectual property rights, both key elements of the innovation process. Many obstacles to innovation are also more apparent for businesses that stress financing, marketing, production or human resource strategies.

    Release date: 2000-01-25

  • Articles and reports: 21-601-M1999039
    Description:

    This paper examines the relation between human capital and rural development.

    Release date: 2000-01-14
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Analysis (6) ((6 results))

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2000123
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Recent studies have demonstrated the quantitative importance of entry, exit, growth and decline in the industrial population. It is this turnover that rewards innovative activity and contributes to productivity growth.

    While the size of the entry population is impressive - especially when cumulated over time - the importance of entry is ultimately due to its impact on innovation in the economy. Experimentation is important in a dynamic, market-based economy. A key part of the experimentation comes from entrants. New entrepreneurs constantly offer consumers new products both in terms of the basic good and the level of service that accompanies it.

    This experimentation is associated with significant costs since many entrants fail. Young firms are most at risk of failure; data drawn from a longitudinal file of Canadian entrants in both the goods and service sectors show that over half the new firms that fail do so in the first two years of life. Life is short for the majority of entrants. Only 1 in 5 new firms survive to their tenth birthday.

    Since so many entrants fall by the wayside, it is of inherent interest to understand the conditions that are associated with success, the conditions that allow the potential in new entrepreneurs to come to fruition. The success of an entrant is due to its choosing the correct combination of strategies and activities. To understand how these capabilities contribute to growth, it is necessary to study how the performance of entrants relates to differences in strategies and pursued activities.

    This paper describes the environment and the characteristics of entrants that manage to survive and grow. In doing so, it focuses on two issues. The first is the innovativeness of entrants and the extent to which their growth depends on their innovativeness. The second is to outline how the stress on worker skills, which is partially related to training, complements innovation and contributes to growth.

    Release date: 2000-12-08

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2000140
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    The correlation of occupational gender composition and wages is the basis of pay equity/comparable worth legislation. A number of previous studies have examined this correlation in US data, identifying some of the determinants of low wages in "female jobs", as well as important limitations of public policy in this area. There is little evidence, however, from other jurisdictions. This omission is particularly disturbing in the case of Canada, which now has some of the most extensive pay equity legislation in the world. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive picture, circa the late 1980's, of the occupational gender segregation in Canada and its consequences for wages. We also draw explicit comparisons of our findings to evidence for the United States. We find that the link between female wages and gender composition is much stronger in the United States than in Canada, where it is generally small and not statistically significant. The relatively more advantageous position of women in female jobs in Canada is found to be linked to higher unionization rates and the industry-wage effects of "public goods" sectors.

    Release date: 2000-09-05

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2000150
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Using a comprehensive micro-database of Canadian firms in conjunction with industry-level data on commodity flows, we develop a profile of corporate diversification within the Canadian economy. Our analysis has two major objectives.

    First, we decompose corporate diversification into horizontal and vertical components based on the degree to which industries are linked by inter-industry trade flows. Horizontal and vertical decompositions serve as useful proxies for the strategic factors that underlie diversification strategies.

    Our second objective is to ascertain whether diversification patterns are closely associated with certain industry characteristics. Here we consider industry-level factors that are generally posited to affect the level of diversification (e.g., growth, concentration, knowledge-intensity) along with other variables designed to evaluate whether diversified ownership structures are associated with inter-industry commodity flows. Our regression analysis draws on three empirical measures of diversification: first, the amount of total entropy (i.e., diversification) within an industry; second, the average entropy per firm; and last, the percentage of firms within an industry that diversify.

    Release date: 2000-06-16

  • Articles and reports: 75F0033M2000001
    Geography: Province or territory
    Description:

    This report summarizes a study that was undertaken to ascertain the state of the voluntary sector in Ontario.

    Release date: 2000-05-15

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2000143
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This paper explores differences between innovative and non-innovative establishments in business service industries. It focuses on small establishments that supply core technical inputs to other firms: establishments in computer and related services, engineering, and other scientific and technical services.

    The analysis begins by examining the incidence of innovation within the small firm population. Forty percent of small businesses report introducing new or improved products, processes or organizational forms. Among these businesses, product innovation dominates over process or organizational change. A majority of these establishments reveal an ongoing commitment to innovation programs by introducing innovations on a regular basis. By contrast, businesses that do not introduce new or improved products, processes or organizational methods reveal little supporting evidence of innovation activity.

    The paper then investigates differences in strategic intensity between innovative and non-innovative businesses. Innovators attach greater importance to financial management and capital acquisition. Innovators also place more emphasis on recruiting skilled labour and on promoting incentive compensation. These distinctions are sensible - among small firms in R&D-intensive industries, financing and human resource competencies play a critical role in the innovation process.

    A final section examines whether the obstacles to innovation differ between innovators and non-innovators. Innovators are more likely to report difficulties related to market success, imitation, and skill restrictions. Evidence of learning-by-doing is more apparent within a multivariate framework. The probability of encountering risk-related obstacles and input restrictions is higher among establishments that engage in R&D and use intellectual property rights, both key elements of the innovation process. Many obstacles to innovation are also more apparent for businesses that stress financing, marketing, production or human resource strategies.

    Release date: 2000-01-25

  • Articles and reports: 21-601-M1999039
    Description:

    This paper examines the relation between human capital and rural development.

    Release date: 2000-01-14
Reference (1)

Reference (1) ((1 result))

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 12-001-X19990024878
    Description:

    In his paper Fritz Scheuren considers the possible uses of administrative records to enhance and improve population censuses. After reviewing previous uses of administrative records in an international context, he puts forward several proposals for research and development towards increased use of administrative records in the American statistical system.

    Release date: 2000-03-01
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