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All (17)

All (17) (0 to 10 of 17 results)

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2005272
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This paper makes use of matched tax-return data for daughters, their parents, their partners and their partners' parents to investigate the interactions between intergenerational mobility and marital matching for young couples in Canada. We show how assortative mating contributes to intergenerational household income persistence. The strength of the association between sons-in-law's income and women's parental income means that the intergenerational link between household incomes is stronger than that found for daughters' own incomes alone. This is also the case when viewed from the other side, so that daughters' and their partners' earnings are related to partners' parental income. These results indicate that assortative matching magnifies individual-level intergenerational persistence.

    In the second part of the paper we consider assortative mating by parental income. We find that daughter's parental income has an elasticity of almost 0.2 with respect to her partner's parental income. This association is of approximately the same magnitude as the intergenerational link between parents' and children's incomes. We investigate variations in the correlation between the parental incomes across several measured dimensions; cohabiting couples have lower correlations, as do those who form partnerships early, those who live in rural areas and most interestingly, those who later divorce. We interpret this last result as evidence that, on average, couples with parental incomes that are more similar enjoy a more stable match.

    Release date: 2005-12-08

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2005267
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    We analyze the intergenerational income mobility of Canadians born to immigrants using the 2001 Census. A detailed portrait of the Canadian population is offered as are estimates of the degree of generational mobility among the children of immigrants from 70 countries. The degree of persistence as estimated in regression to the mean models is about the same for immigrants as for the entire population, and there is more generational mobility among immigrants in Canada than in the United States. We also use quantile regressions to distinguish between the role of social capital from other constraints limiting mobility and find that these are present and associated with father's education.

    Release date: 2005-10-25

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2001158
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Several recent papers have cited non-linearities in the relationship between incomes of parents and their children as evidence of important intergenerational credit constraints. This paper argues that any pattern in the conditional expectation function can be justified by a properly constructed story with credit constraints. This raises questions about the validity of the approach. Quantile regressions provide an alternative test. Using data from Canadian tax files, this paper finds results contrary to the credit constraints hypothesis; the non-linearities in the regression function are driven by the low-ability (unconstrained) sons rather than high-ability (presumably constrained) sons.

    Release date: 2001-01-30

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2001159
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    The objective of this paper is to examine the extent to which an individual's use of unemployment insurance (UI) as a young adult is influenced by past experience with the program, and by having had a parent who also collected UI. A major methodological challenge is to determine the extent to which the intergenerational correlation of UI status is "spurious" or causal. Both the time to a first UI claim and the entire sequence of claims over an extended period are examined using two alternative ways of controlling for unobserved heterogeneity. The analysis is based upon longitudinal data on a cohort of young Canadian and Swedish men. It is found that parental use of UI shortens the time to a first UI claim in Canada, but not in Sweden. Subsequent participation in the Canadian program is influenced by parental UI history. In Sweden individual learning through past participation in UI - not family background - is the dominant avenue determining repeated participation.

    Release date: 2001-01-12

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M1998113
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Our objective is to obtain an accurate estimate of the degree of intergenerational income mobility in Canada. We use income tax information on about 400,000 father-son pairs, and find intergenerational earnings elasticities to be about 0.2. Earnings mobility tends to be slightly greater than income mobility, but non-parametric techniques uncover significant non-linearities in both of these relationships. Intergenerational earnings mobility is greater at the lower end of the income distribution than at the upper end, and displays an inverted V-shape elsewhere. Intergenerational income mobility follows roughly the same pattern, but is much lower at the very top of the income distribution.

    Release date: 1998-10-27

  • Table: 68-513-X19970013562
    Description:

    Statistics Canada regularly produces data dealing with government finances, the deficit, and national accounting. Indeed, in a sense, these data have been one of the historical mainstays of all statistical organizations.

    Release date: 1998-02-04

  • Table: 68-513-X19970013563
    Description:

    Generational Accounting (GA) is a method of long-term public policy evaluation that attempts to measure what representative members of each current and future generation can expect to pay over their remaining lifetimes in net taxes. In this chapter we highlight the issues that arise from using GA to assess Canada's fiscal policy in terms of sustainability and overall impact on different age groups.

    Release date: 1998-02-04

  • Table: 68-513-X19970013564
    Description:

    Canada's workers' compensation systems are financed through a payroll tax with the cost initially falling on employers. The rates that employers pay are supposed to reflect the costs of current and future medical and vocational rehabilitation, and financial compensation associated with workplace injuries, as well as the costs of administering the system.

    Release date: 1998-02-04

  • Table: 68-513-X19970013565
    Description:

    A clear understanding of the size and extent of intergenerational transfers made by governments is central to any informed debate dealing with "Intergenerational Equity." Accordingly, the aim of this chapter is to provide a descriptive backdrop to these discussions by examining how current policy at all levels of government in Canada redistributes income among the different generations.

    Release date: 1998-02-04

  • Table: 68-513-X19970013566
    Description:

    The use of the term intergenerational equity is increasingly prevalent in government, academia, and the media. It is a broad concept referring to the relative positions of persons in successive generations. There is no single measure of society's intergenerational equity but rather a series of indicators for specific characteristics and their relative positions over time.

    Release date: 1998-02-04
Data (9)

Data (9) ((9 results))

  • Table: 68-513-X19970013562
    Description:

    Statistics Canada regularly produces data dealing with government finances, the deficit, and national accounting. Indeed, in a sense, these data have been one of the historical mainstays of all statistical organizations.

    Release date: 1998-02-04

  • Table: 68-513-X19970013563
    Description:

    Generational Accounting (GA) is a method of long-term public policy evaluation that attempts to measure what representative members of each current and future generation can expect to pay over their remaining lifetimes in net taxes. In this chapter we highlight the issues that arise from using GA to assess Canada's fiscal policy in terms of sustainability and overall impact on different age groups.

    Release date: 1998-02-04

  • Table: 68-513-X19970013564
    Description:

    Canada's workers' compensation systems are financed through a payroll tax with the cost initially falling on employers. The rates that employers pay are supposed to reflect the costs of current and future medical and vocational rehabilitation, and financial compensation associated with workplace injuries, as well as the costs of administering the system.

    Release date: 1998-02-04

  • Table: 68-513-X19970013565
    Description:

    A clear understanding of the size and extent of intergenerational transfers made by governments is central to any informed debate dealing with "Intergenerational Equity." Accordingly, the aim of this chapter is to provide a descriptive backdrop to these discussions by examining how current policy at all levels of government in Canada redistributes income among the different generations.

    Release date: 1998-02-04

  • Table: 68-513-X19970013566
    Description:

    The use of the term intergenerational equity is increasingly prevalent in government, academia, and the media. It is a broad concept referring to the relative positions of persons in successive generations. There is no single measure of society's intergenerational equity but rather a series of indicators for specific characteristics and their relative positions over time.

    Release date: 1998-02-04

  • Table: 68-513-X19970013567
    Description:

    Generational Accounting (GA) attempts to measure the degree of intergenerational redistribution that exists within a given fiscal and demographic structure. This approach produces a more comprehensive measure of the extent of intergenerational redistribution stemming from government programs than traditional measures that are based solely on government debt and deficits.

    Release date: 1998-02-04

  • Table: 68-513-X19970013569
    Description:

    The intergenerational fairness and long-term sustainability of Canada's social programs, such as pensions and health care, have recently re-emerged as an issue. The last time this issue had any prominence was more than a decade ago, as part of Canada's "great pension debate" of the late 1970s and early 1980s. As before, the issue is being driven by concerns over population aging.

    Release date: 1998-02-04

  • Table: 68-513-X19970013570
    Description:

    In the following remarks I argue that Generational Accounting is a central tool for conducting fiscal policy in the long-term, and that in order to break the fixation of politicians with annual budgetary measures independent government agencies should be directly responsible for calculating the Generational Accounts.

    Release date: 1998-02-04

  • Table: 68-513-X19970013571
    Description:

    "Intergenerational equity" is a term that can be interpreted in the sense of either: [1] equity between persons in the intergenerational transmission of economic status - often judged by the norm of "equality of opportunity"; or [2] equity in the intergenerational division of aggregate resources, considering all members of each generation as a group. Many of the papers in the companion volume (Corak, 1998) of intergenerational social mobility has long been a central issue in sociology and politics. This volume has focussed on the second interpretation, and espoused a "new" type of measurement of "Generational Accounting."

    Release date: 1998-02-04
Analysis (8)

Analysis (8) ((8 results))

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2005272
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This paper makes use of matched tax-return data for daughters, their parents, their partners and their partners' parents to investigate the interactions between intergenerational mobility and marital matching for young couples in Canada. We show how assortative mating contributes to intergenerational household income persistence. The strength of the association between sons-in-law's income and women's parental income means that the intergenerational link between household incomes is stronger than that found for daughters' own incomes alone. This is also the case when viewed from the other side, so that daughters' and their partners' earnings are related to partners' parental income. These results indicate that assortative matching magnifies individual-level intergenerational persistence.

    In the second part of the paper we consider assortative mating by parental income. We find that daughter's parental income has an elasticity of almost 0.2 with respect to her partner's parental income. This association is of approximately the same magnitude as the intergenerational link between parents' and children's incomes. We investigate variations in the correlation between the parental incomes across several measured dimensions; cohabiting couples have lower correlations, as do those who form partnerships early, those who live in rural areas and most interestingly, those who later divorce. We interpret this last result as evidence that, on average, couples with parental incomes that are more similar enjoy a more stable match.

    Release date: 2005-12-08

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2005267
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    We analyze the intergenerational income mobility of Canadians born to immigrants using the 2001 Census. A detailed portrait of the Canadian population is offered as are estimates of the degree of generational mobility among the children of immigrants from 70 countries. The degree of persistence as estimated in regression to the mean models is about the same for immigrants as for the entire population, and there is more generational mobility among immigrants in Canada than in the United States. We also use quantile regressions to distinguish between the role of social capital from other constraints limiting mobility and find that these are present and associated with father's education.

    Release date: 2005-10-25

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2001158
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Several recent papers have cited non-linearities in the relationship between incomes of parents and their children as evidence of important intergenerational credit constraints. This paper argues that any pattern in the conditional expectation function can be justified by a properly constructed story with credit constraints. This raises questions about the validity of the approach. Quantile regressions provide an alternative test. Using data from Canadian tax files, this paper finds results contrary to the credit constraints hypothesis; the non-linearities in the regression function are driven by the low-ability (unconstrained) sons rather than high-ability (presumably constrained) sons.

    Release date: 2001-01-30

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2001159
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    The objective of this paper is to examine the extent to which an individual's use of unemployment insurance (UI) as a young adult is influenced by past experience with the program, and by having had a parent who also collected UI. A major methodological challenge is to determine the extent to which the intergenerational correlation of UI status is "spurious" or causal. Both the time to a first UI claim and the entire sequence of claims over an extended period are examined using two alternative ways of controlling for unobserved heterogeneity. The analysis is based upon longitudinal data on a cohort of young Canadian and Swedish men. It is found that parental use of UI shortens the time to a first UI claim in Canada, but not in Sweden. Subsequent participation in the Canadian program is influenced by parental UI history. In Sweden individual learning through past participation in UI - not family background - is the dominant avenue determining repeated participation.

    Release date: 2001-01-12

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M1998113
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Our objective is to obtain an accurate estimate of the degree of intergenerational income mobility in Canada. We use income tax information on about 400,000 father-son pairs, and find intergenerational earnings elasticities to be about 0.2. Earnings mobility tends to be slightly greater than income mobility, but non-parametric techniques uncover significant non-linearities in both of these relationships. Intergenerational earnings mobility is greater at the lower end of the income distribution than at the upper end, and displays an inverted V-shape elsewhere. Intergenerational income mobility follows roughly the same pattern, but is much lower at the very top of the income distribution.

    Release date: 1998-10-27

  • Articles and reports: 68-513-X19970013572
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    The inspiration and content of this volume owe much to Larry Kotlikoff, Alan Auerbach and their collaborators for their pioneering work in the development of Generational Accounting. These papers include the latest efforts to apply their accounting framework to Canada as well as numerous extensions of parallel thinking to a far broader range of legacies. Both of these lines of research make use of Statistics Canada's unmatched sources of data and analytical capacities, so the sponsorship and content of this book make a natural match.

    Release date: 1998-02-04

  • Journals and periodicals: 68-513-X
    Description:

    "Generational equity" is a topic that has gradually risen higher and higher on the agenda of governments at all levels. In fact, it is a matter not just for government policy, but a topic that touches many Canadians directly: young and old, parents and grandparents. Canadian policy makers increasingly have to deal with issues associated with the relative status of individuals between successive generations. The reform of public pension programs presents the most obvious example, but there are many other developments that raise the same type of issue. Indeed, the heightened concern over government fiscal policies is due in large part to the readiness of many to view government deficits and debt as a burden on future generations. Generational equity, however, is also a concern of individual Canadians and their families. The allocation of resources between the young and the old within the family is becoming an increasingly important issue for many, especially in light not only of an aging population but also the belief that those just entering the labour force will likely not attain the standard of living to which their parents have become accustomed.

    The contributors to this book examine the operation of government taxes and expenditures from a generational perspective. In part the motivation for bringing these essays together is to offer comprehensive and up-to-date information on the age incidence of government finances. This motivation, however, also has to do with the development of a new accounting framework, Generational Accounting, that has gained some currency in many industrialized countries, particularly in the United States. It is a truism to say that good analysis requires good data, and certainly Statistic Canada's central role is to offer high-quality data in support of analysis and decision making. But the opposite is equally true, if not as obvious: good data requires good analysis. That is to say, new analytical frameworks often highlight the need to organize existing data in different ways, as well as the need for the development of new types of data. This is certainly one of several reasons that Statistics Canada has sought to develop a strong analytical capacity, and to maintain strong ties with the research community. This book is meant to contribute to this process by examining Canadian data through the lens of Generational Accounting, and by analyzing some of the issues that arise.

    Release date: 1998-02-04

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M1996089
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    In this paper we use administrative data associated with the tax system to: (1) document the extent of intergenerational income mobility among Canadian men; and (2) estimate the income disadvantage (in adulthood) of being raised in a low income household. We find that there is considerable intergenerational income mobility in Canada among middle income earners, but that the inheritance of economic status is significant at both the very top and very bottom of the income distribution. About one-third of those in the bottom quartile were raised by fathers who occupied the same position in the income distribution. In fact, the income advantage of someone who had a father in the top decile over someone who had a father in the bottom decile is in the order of 40%. We also discuss some of the policy implications of these findings, as well as some of their limitations and the directions implied for future research.

    Release date: 1996-01-24
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