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  • Articles and reports: 75F0002M2008001
    Description:

    Shelter is the biggest expenditure most households make and its affordability can have an impact on the wellbeing of household members. For this reason, housing affordability is closely watched by a wide range of stakeholders - from housing advocates to policy analysts - interested in the welfare of Canadians. Measuring affordability involves comparing housing costs to a household's ability to meet them. One common measure is the shelter-cost-to-income-ratio (STIR). The 30% level is commonly accepted as the upper limit for affordable housing. Housing affordability is also a critical input to Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation's core housing need indicator which is used by governments to help design, deliver, fund and evaluate social housing programs. This report, jointly authored by Statistics Canada and CMHC, focuses purely on the dynamics of housing affordability, not on core housing need. It examines the likelihood of spending 30% or more of household income on shelter, how often this occurs, whether it is occasional or persistent, and contrasts those spending 30% or more to those spending less. Cross-sectional estimates indicate that around 19% of Canadians lived in households spending more than the affordability benchmark in 2002. Longitudinally however, less than 9% lived in households that spent above the benchmark in each year between 2002 and 2004, while another 19% lived in households spending above the benchmark for either one or two years. The attributes associated with the highest probabilities of living in a household spending above the affordability benchmark were: living alone, being a female lone parent, renting, being an immigrant, or living in Vancouver or Toronto. In addition, those living in households experiencing some kind of transition between 2002 and 2004 period had a higher probability of exceeding the benchmark at least once during the period. Such transitions included renters with a change in rent-subsidy status, those who changed from owner to renter or vice versa, those who changed family type (for example, marrying or divorcing), and those who moved between cities. Notably, those experiencing these transitions did not exceed the benchmark persistently.

    Release date: 2008-01-25

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X20051128981
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    The article examines changes between 1981 and 2001 in the characteristics of lone parents. It looks at their earnings and the proportion in low income by age and education, and compares them with parents living as a couple. Changes in low-income rates for full-time, full-year workers are also examined.

    Release date: 2006-03-20

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2005245
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Canada witnessed a dramatic decline in welfare participation from 1993/94 to the end of the nineties - one almost on a par with the U.S., but without the sort of landmark legislation adopted there. We explore the dynamics of Social Assistance usage in Canada over this period using data based on tax files for between 2 and 4 million individuals in each year from Canada's Longitudinal Administrative Data - the LAD. The unique attributes of this base - size, longitudinal nature, and income information availability - allow us, for the first time, to calculate annual incidence, entry and exit rates both at the national and provincial levels, broken down by family type. We discuss the variety of experiences of these groups; we identify the policy context and discuss the implications of the findings.

    Release date: 2005-05-30

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2005246
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This paper summarizes findings from the research paper entitled Social Assistance Use in Canada: National and Provincial Trends in Incidence, Entry and Exit. For many Canadian families, Social Assistance (SA) usage reflects near-destitution and an exclusion from the social and economic mainstream. For children, it can represent a critical period of disadvantage with potentially lasting effects. While committed to SA, governments worry about cost. Thus, when SA participation rose during the recession of the early 1990s, virtually all provinces instituted changes to reduce SA dependency. Eligibility rules were made tighter, benefit levels cut, and 'snitch' lines introduced. Following these changes, and the economic recovery post-1995, the number of SA-dependent individuals dropped from 3.1 million to under 2 million by 2000, while benefits received fell from $14.3b in 1994 to $10.4b in 2001 (current dollars).

    This paper maps the cycle of SA dependency, focusing on empirical records of SA entry, exit, and annual participation rates, placing these in the economic and policy context of the 1990s. The paper begins with a description of the database used, sample selection and editing procedures, the unit of analysis, a definition of SA participation, and the measure of entry and exit from SA. It then turns to the economic and policy backdrop of the 1990s, before showing results at the national and provincial levels. We conclude with a summary of main findings.

    Release date: 2005-05-30

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2005248
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    We examine the evolution of low-paid work and the position of economically vulnerable families in Canada over the last two decades. Despite substantial growth in workers' educational attainment and experience, the proportion of jobs paying less than $10.00 per hour has remained fairly stable since the early 1980s. However, union coverage in low-paid jobs has dropped, especially for males. The risk of job loss has changed little but the proportion of newly hired employees who hold temporary jobs has increased markedly, thereby indicating important changes in the employer-employee relationship. Despite their rising educational attainment, most low earners (except women aged 25 to 29) have not seen their chances of escaping low earnings improved between the 1980s and the 1990s.

    Of all full-time employees, 5% were low-paid and lived in low income families in 1980 and 2000. In 2000, individuals with no high school diploma, recent immigrants, unattached individuals, lone mothers and persons living alone accounted for fully 71% of all full-time workers in low-paid jobs and in low-income, but only 37% of all full-time workers. While members of these five groups account for the majority of low-paid workers in low-income families, two of these groups have seen their economic position declined significantly: low-educated couples and recent immigrants.

    Release date: 2005-04-25

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X200411113131
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This article takes a brief look at family incomes in 2002 and changes since 1980.

    Release date: 2004-12-20

  • Articles and reports: 11-008-X20020036395
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This article examines the extent to which Canadian families are financially vulnerable to adverse events, such as a sudden loss of income or unexpected bills.

    Release date: 2002-12-17

  • 8. Community Profiles Archived
    Profile of a community or region: 93F0053X
    Description:

    The 2001 Community Profiles provide 2001 Census data for close to 6,000 communities, as well as for large and smaller metropolitan areas. These profiles contain free information for all Canadian communities (cities, towns, villages, Indian reserves and settlements, etc.), for counties or their equivalents and for metropolitan areas, as well as data for 2003 health regions. Additional information on data quality, definitions, data quality indexes, special notes and other supporting text is available.

    Release date: 2002-06-27

  • 9. Low Income Persons Archived
    Table: 13-569-X
    Description:

    This publication Low income persons (Low income cut-offs, 1992 base) presents low income statistics, based on annual Survey of Consumer Finances (SCF) data, utilizing the low income cut-offs (1992 base), or LICOs.

    Release date: 1999-04-14

  • Articles and reports: 75F0002M1999001
    Description:

    This paper investigates the extent to which Canadians were exposed to low income during the 1993 to 1996 period.

    Release date: 1999-03-25
Data (8)

Data (8) ((8 results))

  • 1. Community Profiles Archived
    Profile of a community or region: 93F0053X
    Description:

    The 2001 Community Profiles provide 2001 Census data for close to 6,000 communities, as well as for large and smaller metropolitan areas. These profiles contain free information for all Canadian communities (cities, towns, villages, Indian reserves and settlements, etc.), for counties or their equivalents and for metropolitan areas, as well as data for 2003 health regions. Additional information on data quality, definitions, data quality indexes, special notes and other supporting text is available.

    Release date: 2002-06-27

  • 2. Low Income Persons Archived
    Table: 13-569-X
    Description:

    This publication Low income persons (Low income cut-offs, 1992 base) presents low income statistics, based on annual Survey of Consumer Finances (SCF) data, utilizing the low income cut-offs (1992 base), or LICOs.

    Release date: 1999-04-14

  • Table: 93F0029X1996001
    Description:

    Series Description - The Nation Series (1996 Census of Population) is the first released series where basic data at a high level of geography are presented on variables collected by the 1996 Census.There are a total of 143 tables in the Nation Series which cover all census variables.The Complete Edition CDROM, Catalogue number 93F0020XCB96004 contains the cumulative set of all data tables from all Nation Series CDROMs.This comprehensive CDROM provides a full range of statistics on characteristics of the population which includes:Demographic information (100% data only for Age and Sex, Marital Status and Common-law Unions); Families (Number, Type and Structure); Structural Type of Dwelling and Household Size; Immigration and Citizenship; Languages; Aboriginal Origin, Ethnic Origin and Visible Minorities (Population Groups); Labour Market Activities and Household Activities (unpaid work); Place of Work and Mode of Transportation; Education; Mobility and Migration; Family, Dwellings and Household Information; as well as Individual and Family Income. Selected variables, such as occupation, are available to illustrate the analytical potential of the data based on cross-tabulations (i.e. sex by age and occupation).These data are national in coverage and provide information for Canada, provinces and territories and, in some tabulations, census metropolitan area levels. Some tables include comparisons with data from earlier censuses to provide an historical perspective.A variety of Nation Series data table extracts presenting social and economic characteristics of the Canadian population are available at the Statistics Canada Census Web site (www.statcan.gc.ca).

    Release date: 1998-05-12

  • Table: 93F0029X1996002
    Description:

    Series Description - The Nation Series (1996 Census of Population) is the first released series where basic data at a high level of geography are presented on variables collected by the 1996 Census.There are a total of 143 tables in the Nation Series which cover all census variables.The Complete Edition CDROM, Catalogue number 93F0020XCB96004 contains the cumulative set of all data tables from all Nation Series CDROMs.This comprehensive CDROM provides a full range of statistics on characteristics of the population which includes:Demographic information (100% data only for Age and Sex, Marital Status and Common-law Unions); Families (Number, Type and Structure); Structural Type of Dwelling and Household Size; Immigration and Citizenship; Languages; Aboriginal Origin, Ethnic Origin and Visible Minorities (Population Groups); Labour Market Activities and Household Activities (unpaid work); Place of Work and Mode of Transportation; Education; Mobility and Migration; Family, Dwellings and Household Information; as well as Individual and Family Income. Selected variables, such as occupation, are available to illustrate the analytical potential of the data based on cross-tabulations (i.e. sex by age and occupation).These data are national in coverage and provide information for Canada, provinces and territories and, in some tabulations, census metropolitan area levels. Some tables include comparisons with data from earlier censuses to provide an historical perspective.A variety of Nation Series data table extracts presenting social and economic characteristics of the Canadian population are available at the Statistics Canada Census Web site (www.statcan.gc.ca).

    Release date: 1998-05-12

  • Table: 93F0029X1996007
    Description:

    Series Description - The Nation Series (1996 Census of Population) is the first released series where basic data at a high level of geography are presented on variables collected by the 1996 Census.There are a total of 143 tables in the Nation Series which cover all census variables.The Complete Edition CDROM, Catalogue number 93F0020XCB96004 contains the cumulative set of all data tables from all Nation Series CDROMs.This comprehensive CDROM provides a full range of statistics on characteristics of the population which includes:Demographic information (100% data only for Age and Sex, Marital Status and Common-law Unions); Families (Number, Type and Structure); Structural Type of Dwelling and Household Size; Immigration and Citizenship; Languages; Aboriginal Origin, Ethnic Origin and Visible Minorities (Population Groups); Labour Market Activities and Household Activities (unpaid work); Place of Work and Mode of Transportation; Education; Mobility and Migration; Family, Dwellings and Household Information; as well as Individual and Family Income. Selected variables, such as occupation, are available to illustrate the analytical potential of the data based on cross-tabulations (i.e. sex by age and occupation).These data are national in coverage and provide information for Canada, provinces and territories and, in some tabulations, census metropolitan area levels. Some tables include comparisons with data from earlier censuses to provide an historical perspective.A variety of Nation Series data table extracts presenting social and economic characteristics of the Canadian population are available at the Statistics Canada Census Web site (www.statcan.gc.ca).

    Release date: 1998-05-12

  • Table: 93F0029X1996008
    Description:

    Series Description - The Nation Series (1996 Census of Population) is the first released series where basic data at a high level of geography are presented on variables collected by the 1996 Census.There are a total of 143 tables in the Nation Series which cover all census variables.The Complete Edition CDROM, Catalogue number 93F0020XCB96004 contains the cumulative set of all data tables from all Nation Series CDROMs.This comprehensive CDROM provides a full range of statistics on characteristics of the population which includes:Demographic information (100% data only for Age and Sex, Marital Status and Common-law Unions); Families (Number, Type and Structure); Structural Type of Dwelling and Household Size; Immigration and Citizenship; Languages; Aboriginal Origin, Ethnic Origin and Visible Minorities (Population Groups); Labour Market Activities and Household Activities (unpaid work); Place of Work and Mode of Transportation; Education; Mobility and Migration; Family, Dwellings and Household Information; as well as Individual and Family Income. Selected variables, such as occupation, are available to illustrate the analytical potential of the data based on cross-tabulations (i.e. sex by age and occupation).These data are national in coverage and provide information for Canada, provinces and territories and, in some tabulations, census metropolitan area levels. Some tables include comparisons with data from earlier censuses to provide an historical perspective.A variety of Nation Series data table extracts presenting social and economic characteristics of the Canadian population are available at the Statistics Canada Census Web site (www.statcan.gc.ca).

    Release date: 1998-05-12

  • Table: 93F0029X1996009
    Description:

    Series Description - The Nation Series (1996 Census of Population) is the first released series where basic data at a high level of geography are presented on variables collected by the 1996 Census.There are a total of 143 tables in the Nation Series which cover all census variables.The Complete Edition CDROM, Catalogue number 93F0020XCB96004 contains the cumulative set of all data tables from all Nation Series CDROMs.This comprehensive CDROM provides a full range of statistics on characteristics of the population which includes:Demographic information (100% data only for Age and Sex, Marital Status and Common-law Unions); Families (Number, Type and Structure); Structural Type of Dwelling and Household Size; Immigration and Citizenship; Languages; Aboriginal Origin, Ethnic Origin and Visible Minorities (Population Groups); Labour Market Activities and Household Activities (unpaid work); Place of Work and Mode of Transportation; Education; Mobility and Migration; Family, Dwellings and Household Information; as well as Individual and Family Income. Selected variables, such as occupation, are available to illustrate the analytical potential of the data based on cross-tabulations (i.e. sex by age and occupation).These data are national in coverage and provide information for Canada, provinces and territories and, in some tabulations, census metropolitan area levels. Some tables include comparisons with data from earlier censuses to provide an historical perspective.A variety of Nation Series data table extracts presenting social and economic characteristics of the Canadian population are available at the Statistics Canada Census Web site (www.statcan.gc.ca).

    Release date: 1998-05-12

  • Table: 93F0029X1996010
    Description:

    Series Description - The Nation Series (1996 Census of Population) is the first released series where basic data at a high level of geography are presented on variables collected by the 1996 Census.There are a total of 143 tables in the Nation Series which cover all census variables.The Complete Edition CDROM, Catalogue number 93F0020XCB96004 contains the cumulative set of all data tables from all Nation Series CDROMs.This comprehensive CDROM provides a full range of statistics on characteristics of the population which includes:Demographic information (100% data only for Age and Sex, Marital Status and Common-law Unions); Families (Number, Type and Structure); Structural Type of Dwelling and Household Size; Immigration and Citizenship; Languages; Aboriginal Origin, Ethnic Origin and Visible Minorities (Population Groups); Labour Market Activities and Household Activities (unpaid work); Place of Work and Mode of Transportation; Education; Mobility and Migration; Family, Dwellings and Household Information; as well as Individual and Family Income. Selected variables, such as occupation, are available to illustrate the analytical potential of the data based on cross-tabulations (i.e. sex by age and occupation).These data are national in coverage and provide information for Canada, provinces and territories and, in some tabulations, census metropolitan area levels. Some tables include comparisons with data from earlier censuses to provide an historical perspective.A variety of Nation Series data table extracts presenting social and economic characteristics of the Canadian population are available at the Statistics Canada Census Web site (www.statcan.gc.ca).

    Release date: 1998-05-12
Analysis (11)

Analysis (11) (0 to 10 of 11 results)

  • Articles and reports: 75F0002M2008001
    Description:

    Shelter is the biggest expenditure most households make and its affordability can have an impact on the wellbeing of household members. For this reason, housing affordability is closely watched by a wide range of stakeholders - from housing advocates to policy analysts - interested in the welfare of Canadians. Measuring affordability involves comparing housing costs to a household's ability to meet them. One common measure is the shelter-cost-to-income-ratio (STIR). The 30% level is commonly accepted as the upper limit for affordable housing. Housing affordability is also a critical input to Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation's core housing need indicator which is used by governments to help design, deliver, fund and evaluate social housing programs. This report, jointly authored by Statistics Canada and CMHC, focuses purely on the dynamics of housing affordability, not on core housing need. It examines the likelihood of spending 30% or more of household income on shelter, how often this occurs, whether it is occasional or persistent, and contrasts those spending 30% or more to those spending less. Cross-sectional estimates indicate that around 19% of Canadians lived in households spending more than the affordability benchmark in 2002. Longitudinally however, less than 9% lived in households that spent above the benchmark in each year between 2002 and 2004, while another 19% lived in households spending above the benchmark for either one or two years. The attributes associated with the highest probabilities of living in a household spending above the affordability benchmark were: living alone, being a female lone parent, renting, being an immigrant, or living in Vancouver or Toronto. In addition, those living in households experiencing some kind of transition between 2002 and 2004 period had a higher probability of exceeding the benchmark at least once during the period. Such transitions included renters with a change in rent-subsidy status, those who changed from owner to renter or vice versa, those who changed family type (for example, marrying or divorcing), and those who moved between cities. Notably, those experiencing these transitions did not exceed the benchmark persistently.

    Release date: 2008-01-25

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X20051128981
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    The article examines changes between 1981 and 2001 in the characteristics of lone parents. It looks at their earnings and the proportion in low income by age and education, and compares them with parents living as a couple. Changes in low-income rates for full-time, full-year workers are also examined.

    Release date: 2006-03-20

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2005245
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Canada witnessed a dramatic decline in welfare participation from 1993/94 to the end of the nineties - one almost on a par with the U.S., but without the sort of landmark legislation adopted there. We explore the dynamics of Social Assistance usage in Canada over this period using data based on tax files for between 2 and 4 million individuals in each year from Canada's Longitudinal Administrative Data - the LAD. The unique attributes of this base - size, longitudinal nature, and income information availability - allow us, for the first time, to calculate annual incidence, entry and exit rates both at the national and provincial levels, broken down by family type. We discuss the variety of experiences of these groups; we identify the policy context and discuss the implications of the findings.

    Release date: 2005-05-30

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2005246
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This paper summarizes findings from the research paper entitled Social Assistance Use in Canada: National and Provincial Trends in Incidence, Entry and Exit. For many Canadian families, Social Assistance (SA) usage reflects near-destitution and an exclusion from the social and economic mainstream. For children, it can represent a critical period of disadvantage with potentially lasting effects. While committed to SA, governments worry about cost. Thus, when SA participation rose during the recession of the early 1990s, virtually all provinces instituted changes to reduce SA dependency. Eligibility rules were made tighter, benefit levels cut, and 'snitch' lines introduced. Following these changes, and the economic recovery post-1995, the number of SA-dependent individuals dropped from 3.1 million to under 2 million by 2000, while benefits received fell from $14.3b in 1994 to $10.4b in 2001 (current dollars).

    This paper maps the cycle of SA dependency, focusing on empirical records of SA entry, exit, and annual participation rates, placing these in the economic and policy context of the 1990s. The paper begins with a description of the database used, sample selection and editing procedures, the unit of analysis, a definition of SA participation, and the measure of entry and exit from SA. It then turns to the economic and policy backdrop of the 1990s, before showing results at the national and provincial levels. We conclude with a summary of main findings.

    Release date: 2005-05-30

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2005248
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    We examine the evolution of low-paid work and the position of economically vulnerable families in Canada over the last two decades. Despite substantial growth in workers' educational attainment and experience, the proportion of jobs paying less than $10.00 per hour has remained fairly stable since the early 1980s. However, union coverage in low-paid jobs has dropped, especially for males. The risk of job loss has changed little but the proportion of newly hired employees who hold temporary jobs has increased markedly, thereby indicating important changes in the employer-employee relationship. Despite their rising educational attainment, most low earners (except women aged 25 to 29) have not seen their chances of escaping low earnings improved between the 1980s and the 1990s.

    Of all full-time employees, 5% were low-paid and lived in low income families in 1980 and 2000. In 2000, individuals with no high school diploma, recent immigrants, unattached individuals, lone mothers and persons living alone accounted for fully 71% of all full-time workers in low-paid jobs and in low-income, but only 37% of all full-time workers. While members of these five groups account for the majority of low-paid workers in low-income families, two of these groups have seen their economic position declined significantly: low-educated couples and recent immigrants.

    Release date: 2005-04-25

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X200411113131
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This article takes a brief look at family incomes in 2002 and changes since 1980.

    Release date: 2004-12-20

  • Articles and reports: 11-008-X20020036395
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This article examines the extent to which Canadian families are financially vulnerable to adverse events, such as a sudden loss of income or unexpected bills.

    Release date: 2002-12-17

  • Articles and reports: 75F0002M1999001
    Description:

    This paper investigates the extent to which Canadians were exposed to low income during the 1993 to 1996 period.

    Release date: 1999-03-25

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X19990014407
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    The distribution of income changes over time, as does the proportion of total income received by different family types. This aritcle examines the relative shares of total family income for different family groups between 1970 and 1995, along with changes in the composition of these groups. It complements the family income study published in the Winter 1998 issue of perspectives.

    Release date: 1999-03-03

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X19980044039
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Income inequality among families increased between 1970 and 1995 as a result of the recessions of the early eighties and nineties. This article looks at the extend of, and changes in, family income inequality over the period. It also demonstrates the role of government transfer payments and personal income taxes in reducing inequality.

    Release date: 1998-12-09
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