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- 11. Immigrants: Settling for less? ArchivedArticles and reports: 75-001-X200410613121Geography: CanadaDescription:
This paper examines the problems new immigrants have when looking for a job in Canada, including non-recognition of their credentials, their education level, and their experience abroad.Release date: 2004-09-21
- Articles and reports: 67F0001M2001021Geography: CanadaDescription:
This paper examines some of the fundamental issues behind foreign affiliate trade statistics (FATS), including what they are, who needs them and why they have become so important, and Statistics Canada's plan for collecting FATS.Release date: 2001-10-11
- 13. Foreign-born vs Native-born Canadians: A Comparison of Their Inter-provincial Labour Mobility ArchivedArticles and reports: 11F0019M1998114Geography: CanadaDescription:
This paper investigates the inter-provincial labour mobility behaviour of immigrants relative to that of native-born Canadians. Foreign-born Canadians differ a great deal from their domestically-born counterparts. The foreign-born population is geographically concentrated in a few provinces and a few big cities. As a whole, they are older, better educated, more likely to be married, and more likely to have dependent children and bigger households. They are less active in participating in full-time education and training. They fare relatively better in the labour market. As a result, a higher proportion of them receive social security benefits that are directly tied to the presence of dependent children or age such as family allowance benefits and pension income, but a lower proportion receive benefits that are related to labour market performance such as employment insurance benefits and social assistance benefits.
As a whole, immigrants are relatively less mobile inter-provincially. This is true both nationally and across almost every province. Among those who move to other provinces, destinations for foreign-born migrants are highly geographically concentrated. Most of them make their new homes in Alberta, Ontario and British Columbia. A significantly lower proportion of them relocate to other provinces for economic considerations but a much higher proportion move to go to school or after retirement. Earnings return to their inter-provincial migration is significantly more substantial. This is the result of both wage increase and more hours of work after migration.
Multi-variate regression results show that there are no statistically significant structural differences in the determinants of inter-provincial migration decisions between comparable foreign- and native-born Canadians. The probability of moving to other provinces, for immigrants as well as for domestically-born Canadians, is higher if earnings potentials elsewhere are relatively higher, lower if it is relatively harder to find employment elsewhere, higher among better educated workers, lower among French-speaking Canadians, lower among union members, and decreases with age, family size and job tenure. None of the proxies for government's labour market interventions significantly affect the decision to move inter-provincially. The lower mobility rates among the foreign-born are fully attributable to distributional and compositional differences between the immigrant and non-immigrant populations.
These findings have a direct policy implication on immigration selection. To encourage population and labour force growth in economically less prosperous provinces, it appears appropriate and effective to amend the current immigration selection and approval system, considering intended destinations as an additional factor and awarding additional points to applicants who choose designated provinces.Release date: 1998-09-23
- 14. Canada's newest workers ArchivedArticles and reports: 75-001-X19950011778Geography: CanadaDescription:
Immigration is a major source of new workers. This article profiles Canada's "newest" workers and compares their characteristics with those of Canadian-born workers.Release date: 1995-03-08
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Analysis (14) (0 to 10 of 14 results)
- Articles and reports: 11-626-X2016055Description:
This Economic Insights article documents differences in labour market participation observed between immigrant wives and Canadian-born wives over the 2006-to-2014 period. It also assesses the degree to which the lower participation of immigrant wives, as compared with their Canadian-born counterparts, can be accounted for by differences in socioeconomic characteristics, such as family size, weekly wages of husbands, and labour force participation in the source country. The study uses the Labour Force Survey and World Bank indicators on source-country characteristics to examine these issues. Attention is restricted to Canadian-born women and landed immigrant women aged 25 to 54 who are married (or living in common-law relationships) with husbands aged 25 to 54 who are employed as paid workers. For simplicity, the terms ‘husbands’ and ‘wives’ are used to refer to men and women who are married or in common-law relationships.Release date: 2016-01-07
- Articles and reports: 11-626-X2015051Description:
This article presents information about the receipt of social assistance by refugee claimants who initiated their claim for protection during the 1999-to-2010 period. Until now, no data source has been able to supply information on social assistance receipt among the refugee claimant population. A longer, more detailed study is also available.Release date: 2015-10-15
- 3. Social Assistance Receipt Among Refugee Claimants in Canada: Evidence from Linked Administrative Data FilesArticles and reports: 11F0019M2015369Description:
Refugee claimants are an important part of the non-permanent resident population of Canada. Canada granted permanent residency to approximately 12,000 to 16,000 refugees every year during the latter part of the 2000s, and approximately 115,000 to 130,000 refugee claimants were residing in Canada at some point every year over that period. Despite the volume of refugee claimants, very little information on their economic characteristics has been available to date. This report draws on new linked administrative data files to provide information on the receipt of social assistance (SA) among this population. The study was successful in linking approximately three-quarters of all refugee claimants to administrative files containing information on the annual receipt of SA.Release date: 2015-10-15
- 4. Source-country Female Labour Force Participation and the Wages of Immigrant Women in Canada ArchivedArticles and reports: 11F0019M2015365Description:
Previous studies have found a strong association between source-country female labour force participation rates and immigrant women’s labour force participation in the host country. This relationship is interpreted as the enduring influence of source-country gender-role attitudes on immigrant women’s labour market activity. However, the assumption that source-country female labour force participation levels closely capture cultural gender-role attitudes has not been carefully examined. Furthermore, little is known about how source-country characteristics might be correlated with immigrant women’s labour market outcomes after entering the host country’s labour market.
This paper extends the current literature by addressing three questions: What is the relationship between source-country gender-role attitudes and source-country female labour force participation? Does the relationship between the source-country female labour force participation rates and immigrant women’s labour force participation in the host country persist when source-country gender-role attitudes are taken into account? Are source-country female labour force participation rates and source-country gender-role attitudes associated with immigrant women’s wages in Canada?Release date: 2015-01-28
- 5. The Canadian Immigrant Labour Market in 2007 ArchivedArticles and reports: 71-606-X2008003Geography: CanadaDescription:
This series of analytical reports provides an overview of the Canadian labour market experiences of immigrants to Canada, based on data from the Labour Force Survey. These reports examine the labour force characteristics of immigrants, by reporting on employment and unemployment at the Canada level, for the provinces and large metropolitan areas. They also provide more detailed analysis by region of birth, as well as in-depth analysis of other specific aspects of the immigrant labour market.
The first two reports analyzed the 2006 labour market experiences of immigrants. This third report updates many of these characteristics for 2007, including analysis by province, sex, educational attainment and selected age groups, using 2007 Labour Force Survey data now available.Release date: 2008-05-13
- Articles and reports: 71-606-X2008002Geography: CanadaDescription:
The study is the second in a series of analytical articles on immigrants in the labour force based on data from the Labour Force Survey. It sheds light on the relationship between the region or country of birth for immigrants to Canada, when they landed in Canada, and their labour market outcomes (i.e., unemployment, employment and participation rates) in 2006.
This second report builds on the findings from the original report. It addresses how well immigrants from specific regions or countries of birth fared in the Canadian labour market in 2006.Release date: 2008-04-16
- Articles and reports: 11F0019M2006273Geography: CanadaDescription:
Recent immigration appears to be characterized by frequent return and onward migration. This has important consequences for the contribution of immigrants to the economy of the host country. The return to host country settlement costs may be very low for some immigrants. Lack of longitudinal data has prevented much analysis of whether recent international migration is more like internal migration and not a once-for-all move with a possible return should the move prove to have been a mistake. A newly available longitudinal data set covering all immigrants to Canada since 1980 provides the opportunity to address the issues raised by the new migration. The results show that a large fraction of immigrants, especially among skilled workers and entrepreneurs, are highly internationally mobile.Release date: 2006-03-01
- Articles and reports: 11F0019M2005267Geography: CanadaDescription:
We analyze the intergenerational income mobility of Canadians born to immigrants using the 2001 Census. A detailed portrait of the Canadian population is offered as are estimates of the degree of generational mobility among the children of immigrants from 70 countries. The degree of persistence as estimated in regression to the mean models is about the same for immigrants as for the entire population, and there is more generational mobility among immigrants in Canada than in the United States. We also use quantile regressions to distinguish between the role of social capital from other constraints limiting mobility and find that these are present and associated with father's education.Release date: 2005-10-25
- Articles and reports: 11F0019M2005241Geography: CanadaDescription:
This paper examines the effect of ethnic neighbourhoods on wage growth as well as other labour market outcomes of immigrant men in Canada using the 1981, 1986, 1991 and 1996 Censuses. While the primary measure of affiliation is country of birth, ethnicity, language and visible minority status are also examined to determine the robustness of the findings. Consistent with U.S. findings, ethnic neighbourhoods based on country of birth are found to have a negative impact on the ten-year wage growth of immigrants. Further, the model for wage growth is found to be robust to different lengths of time and different base years as well as the specification of language and ethnicity as the affiliation grouping. Using country of birth as the affiliation index, exposure is also found to have a negative impact on the growth of total and weekly earnings as well as the initial wages of entry cohorts. While little evidence is found on the effects of ethnic neighbourhoods on changes in employment, a negative effect of exposure is found on entry employment rates of the most recent landing cohorts. Although the overall effect of ethnic neighbourhoods on wage growth is negative, ethnic neighbourhoods are found to have a divergent effect on different landing cohorts, having a positive impact on the wage growth of the more recent cohorts and a negative impact on earlier cohorts.Release date: 2005-02-25
- Articles and reports: 11F0019M2004234Geography: CanadaDescription:
This article analyses the relationship between the quality of education that immigrants received in their home country, as measured by international test scores, and their success in the Canadian labour market.Release date: 2004-12-15
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