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  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2020013
    Description:

    This paper provides an overview of women-owned start-ups in Canada. The recently developed data on the gender of business owners, as well as longitudinal data on firm entry by cohort for Canadian private corporations, make it possible—for the first time—to examine the entry and performance of women-owned start-ups from 2005 to 2013. In this paper, the annual number, size and industry concentration of new majority women-owned firms are examined and compared with majority men-owned and equally owned entrants. Subsequently, the survival rate and performance of surviving new private corporations by gender are examined.

    Release date: 2020-09-10

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2020009
    Description:

    The main objective of this paper is to determine whether the immigration status of the owner of a small or medium-sized enterprise (SME) affects the likelihood of a company implementing an innovation. This paper uses data from a survey of Canadian small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in 2011, 2014 and 2017, and asks whether immigrant-owned SMEs were more likely to innovate during the three years prior to the survey than those owned by Canadian-born individuals.

    Release date: 2020-06-09

  • Stats in brief: 11-627-M2020010
    Description:

    This infographic examines the participation of Canadian women and women-owned businesses in the free trade between Canada and Chile.

    Release date: 2020-02-05

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2019014
    Description:

    Canada has a relatively large foreign-born population, and the country’s economic prosperity depends on international trade. This paper examines how these two characteristics are linked. Specifically, it investigates the effect of immigrant business ownership on international trade in Canada.

    Understanding the impact of immigrants on international trade is particularly important for Canada, as it is a small open economy with a relatively large immigrant population. This paper empirically investigates the effect of immigrant business ownership on international trade in Canada using a newly developed firm-level database with detailed business ownership and trade information. The new data make it possible to better distinguish between the effect immigrants have on reducing information costs and on product demand, and to assess the impact of immigrant business ownership on the extensive and intensive margins of international trade.

    Release date: 2019-05-13

  • Articles and reports: 11-633-X2018017
    Description:

    Understanding women’s business ownership and the performance of women-owned enterprises is important for designing policies to promote gender equality in leadership, economic empowerment of women and inclusive growth. However, evidence on business ownership by gender remains scarce because of the lack of comprehensive data. The study, Women-owned Enterprises in Canada (Grekou, Li and Liu, 2018), fills the data gap by identifying business ownership by gender using a newly developed administrative dataset—the Canadian Employer–Employee Dynamics Database (CEEDD). The dataset contains business owner information for all unincorporated enterprises and private corporations in Canada. This paper discusses the methodology adopted to establish the gender structure of business ownership. It then presents estimates of business ownership by gender (men or women majority ownership and equal ownership). Finally, it analyzes the sensitivity of these estimates and compares them with those calculated using other data sources.

    Release date: 2018-09-24

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2018407
    Description:

    Entrepreneurial activity has long been argued as an important driver of innovation, job creation, and productivity growth. However, measuring entrepreneurial activity is not easy. Using a newly developed administrative database of firms and workers, the Canadian Employer–Employee Dynamics Database (CEEDD), over the period from 2001 to 2013, this paper distinguishes incorporated self-employment from unincorporated self-employment, and compares the entry and exit dynamics of the two types of self-employment by age, gender and province. The large number of observations in CEEDD and its longitudinal nature make this detailed analysis possible.

    Release date: 2018-07-09

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2018404
    Description:

    Using data from the 2011 and 2014 Survey on Financing and Growth of Small and Medium Enterprises, this paper examines access to financing by immigrant business owners. It documents the main financing sources of immigrant-owned and Canadian-owned small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs).

    Release date: 2018-06-18

  • Articles and reports: 11-626-X2016057
    Description:

    This Economic Insights article addresses the extent to which immigrants contribute to economic growth. For the first time, the business ownership and job-creation activities of immigrants are addressed. A longer, more detailed study is also available.

    Release date: 2016-03-21

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2016375
    Description:

    This paper provides, for the first time, an overview of immigrant business ownership and the associated job creation in Canada. This research is possible because a new dataset has been created in which the immigration status of business owners can be determined. The analysis focuses on two types of businesses: private incorporated businesses and the unincorporated self-employed. Results are presented for immigrants who have entered Canada since 1980 and who were in the country in 2010, hereafter simply referred to as immigrants in Canada. In addition, two entering cohorts of immigrants are tracked to determine the business ownership trajectory during the first 5 to 10 years in Canada.

    Release date: 2016-03-21

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2010061
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    We examine the simultaneous effects of real-exchange-rate movements and of tariff reductions on plant death in Canadian manufacturing industries between 1979 and 1996. We find that both currency appreciation and tariff cuts increase the probability of plant death, but that tariff reductions have a much greater effect. Consistent with the implications of recent international-trade models involving heterogeneous firms, we further find that the effect of exchange-rate movements and tariff cuts on exit are heterogeneous across plants - particularly pronounced among least efficient plants. Our results reveal multi-dimensional heterogeneity that current models featuring one-dimensional heterogeneity (efficiency differences among plants) cannot fully explain. There are significant and substantial differences between exporters and non-exporters, and between domestic- and foreign- controlled plants. Exporters and foreign-owned plants have much lower failure rates; however, their survival is more sensitive to changes in tariffs and real exchange rates, whether differences in their efficiency levels are controlled or not.

    Release date: 2010-04-14
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  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2020013
    Description:

    This paper provides an overview of women-owned start-ups in Canada. The recently developed data on the gender of business owners, as well as longitudinal data on firm entry by cohort for Canadian private corporations, make it possible—for the first time—to examine the entry and performance of women-owned start-ups from 2005 to 2013. In this paper, the annual number, size and industry concentration of new majority women-owned firms are examined and compared with majority men-owned and equally owned entrants. Subsequently, the survival rate and performance of surviving new private corporations by gender are examined.

    Release date: 2020-09-10

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2020009
    Description:

    The main objective of this paper is to determine whether the immigration status of the owner of a small or medium-sized enterprise (SME) affects the likelihood of a company implementing an innovation. This paper uses data from a survey of Canadian small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in 2011, 2014 and 2017, and asks whether immigrant-owned SMEs were more likely to innovate during the three years prior to the survey than those owned by Canadian-born individuals.

    Release date: 2020-06-09

  • Stats in brief: 11-627-M2020010
    Description:

    This infographic examines the participation of Canadian women and women-owned businesses in the free trade between Canada and Chile.

    Release date: 2020-02-05

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2019014
    Description:

    Canada has a relatively large foreign-born population, and the country’s economic prosperity depends on international trade. This paper examines how these two characteristics are linked. Specifically, it investigates the effect of immigrant business ownership on international trade in Canada.

    Understanding the impact of immigrants on international trade is particularly important for Canada, as it is a small open economy with a relatively large immigrant population. This paper empirically investigates the effect of immigrant business ownership on international trade in Canada using a newly developed firm-level database with detailed business ownership and trade information. The new data make it possible to better distinguish between the effect immigrants have on reducing information costs and on product demand, and to assess the impact of immigrant business ownership on the extensive and intensive margins of international trade.

    Release date: 2019-05-13

  • Articles and reports: 11-633-X2018017
    Description:

    Understanding women’s business ownership and the performance of women-owned enterprises is important for designing policies to promote gender equality in leadership, economic empowerment of women and inclusive growth. However, evidence on business ownership by gender remains scarce because of the lack of comprehensive data. The study, Women-owned Enterprises in Canada (Grekou, Li and Liu, 2018), fills the data gap by identifying business ownership by gender using a newly developed administrative dataset—the Canadian Employer–Employee Dynamics Database (CEEDD). The dataset contains business owner information for all unincorporated enterprises and private corporations in Canada. This paper discusses the methodology adopted to establish the gender structure of business ownership. It then presents estimates of business ownership by gender (men or women majority ownership and equal ownership). Finally, it analyzes the sensitivity of these estimates and compares them with those calculated using other data sources.

    Release date: 2018-09-24

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2018407
    Description:

    Entrepreneurial activity has long been argued as an important driver of innovation, job creation, and productivity growth. However, measuring entrepreneurial activity is not easy. Using a newly developed administrative database of firms and workers, the Canadian Employer–Employee Dynamics Database (CEEDD), over the period from 2001 to 2013, this paper distinguishes incorporated self-employment from unincorporated self-employment, and compares the entry and exit dynamics of the two types of self-employment by age, gender and province. The large number of observations in CEEDD and its longitudinal nature make this detailed analysis possible.

    Release date: 2018-07-09

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2018404
    Description:

    Using data from the 2011 and 2014 Survey on Financing and Growth of Small and Medium Enterprises, this paper examines access to financing by immigrant business owners. It documents the main financing sources of immigrant-owned and Canadian-owned small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs).

    Release date: 2018-06-18

  • Articles and reports: 11-626-X2016057
    Description:

    This Economic Insights article addresses the extent to which immigrants contribute to economic growth. For the first time, the business ownership and job-creation activities of immigrants are addressed. A longer, more detailed study is also available.

    Release date: 2016-03-21

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2016375
    Description:

    This paper provides, for the first time, an overview of immigrant business ownership and the associated job creation in Canada. This research is possible because a new dataset has been created in which the immigration status of business owners can be determined. The analysis focuses on two types of businesses: private incorporated businesses and the unincorporated self-employed. Results are presented for immigrants who have entered Canada since 1980 and who were in the country in 2010, hereafter simply referred to as immigrants in Canada. In addition, two entering cohorts of immigrants are tracked to determine the business ownership trajectory during the first 5 to 10 years in Canada.

    Release date: 2016-03-21

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2010061
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    We examine the simultaneous effects of real-exchange-rate movements and of tariff reductions on plant death in Canadian manufacturing industries between 1979 and 1996. We find that both currency appreciation and tariff cuts increase the probability of plant death, but that tariff reductions have a much greater effect. Consistent with the implications of recent international-trade models involving heterogeneous firms, we further find that the effect of exchange-rate movements and tariff cuts on exit are heterogeneous across plants - particularly pronounced among least efficient plants. Our results reveal multi-dimensional heterogeneity that current models featuring one-dimensional heterogeneity (efficiency differences among plants) cannot fully explain. There are significant and substantial differences between exporters and non-exporters, and between domestic- and foreign- controlled plants. Exporters and foreign-owned plants have much lower failure rates; however, their survival is more sensitive to changes in tariffs and real exchange rates, whether differences in their efficiency levels are controlled or not.

    Release date: 2010-04-14
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