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All (19) (0 to 10 of 19 results)

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2007298
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Using data from the 1976-to-1997 Survey of Consumer Finances and the 1993-to-2004 Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics, we examine developments in family income inequality, income polarization, relative low income, and income redistribution through the tax-transfer system. We conclude that family after-tax-income inequality was stable across the 1980s, but rose during the 1989-to-2004 period.

    Growth in family after-tax-income inequality can be due to an increase in family market-income inequality (pre-tax, pre-transfer), or to a reduction in income redistribution through the tax-transfer system.

    We conclude that the increase in inequality was associated with a rise in family market-income inequality. Redistribution was at least as high in 2004 as it was at earlier cyclical peaks, but it failed to keep up with rapid growth in family market-income inequality in the 1990s.

    We present income inequality, polarization, and low-income statistics for several well-known measures, and use data preparations identical to those used in the Luxembourg Income Study in order to facilitate international comparisons.

    Release date: 2007-05-11

  • Articles and reports: 21-006-X2005002
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This bulletin investigates the spatial distribution of occupational structure and its change between 1991 and 2001.

    Release date: 2005-02-24

  • Articles and reports: 75F0002M2004010
    Description:

    This document offers a set of guidelines for analysing income distributions. It focuses on the basic intuition of the concepts and techniques instead of the equations and technical details.

    Release date: 2004-10-08

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2004227
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This paper examines trends in earnings, using tax-based longitudinal data from the last two decades and synthetic cohort analysis.

    Release date: 2004-08-20

  • Articles and reports: 21-601-M2003063
    Description:

    This paper reviews a broad set of concepts and related measures of territorial income disparity. It then applies these measures to the Canadian context, using income data from income tax returns from 1992 to 1999 for the country.

    Release date: 2003-04-29

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2000160
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    In this paper, we use census tract data to analyse changes in neighbourhood income inequality and residential economic segregation in the eight largest Canadian cities during the 1980-95 period. Is the income gap between richer and poorer neighbourhoods rising? Are high and low-income families increasingly clustered in economically homogeneous neighbourhoods? The main results are an elaboration of the spatial implications of the well documented changes that have occurred in family income and earnings inequality since 1980. We find that between neighbourhood family income (post-transfer/pre-tax) inequality rose in all cities driven by a substantial rise in neighbourhood (employment) earnings inequality. Real average earnings fell, sometimes dramatically, in low-income neighbourhoods in virtually all cities while rising moderately in higher income neighbourhoods. Strikingly, social transfers, which were the main factor stabilizing national level income inequality in the face of rising earnings inequality, had only a modest impact on changes in neighbourhood inequality. Changes in the neighbourhood distribution of earnings signal significant change in the social and economic character of many neighbourhoods. Employment was increasingly concentrated in higher income communities and unemployment in lower income neighbourhoods. Finally, we ask whether neighbourhood inequality rose primarily as a result of rising family income inequality in the city as a whole or because families were increasingly sorting themselves into "like" neighbourhoods so that neighbourhoods were becoming more economically homogeneous (economic "segregation"). We find that economic spatial segregation increased in all cities and was the major factor behind rising neighbourhood inequality in four of the eight cities. A general rise in urban family income inequality was the main factor in the remaining four cities.

    Release date: 2000-12-13

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X19990024875
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Dr. Fellegi considers the challenges facing government statistical agencies and strategies to prepare for these challenges. He first describes the environment of changing information needs and the social, economic and technological developments driving this change. He goes on to describe both internal and external elements of a strategy to meet these evolving needs. Internally, a flexible capacity for survey taking and information gathering must be developed. Externally, contacts must be developed to ensure continuing relevance of statistical programs while maintaining non-political objectivity.

    Release date: 2000-03-01

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M1999129
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    While there are many studies on differences in earnings between immigrants and the native-born or among immigrant groups, they ignore the distribution and concentration of income. These aspects are important for understanding the distribution of economic welfare and consumer behaviour among members and hence are policy relevant.

    Using the 1991 Census data, the distribution and concentration of income have been examined among 15 broad birthplace groups for population aged 55 years and over. About 19% of males and 15% of females receive less than half the median income and obtain 5% and 3% of the aggregate income respectively. About 30% of males and 29% of females receive more than one and half times the median income and obtain 61% and59% of aggregate income respectively. About 51% of males and 56% of females who receive incomes between half and one and half times the median income are termed middle-class and their shares of aggregate income amount to 34 and 38% respectively.

    Although, older immigrants aged 55 years and over, as a group, have roughly the same quartile distribution and concentration of income as their Canadian-born counterparts, the birthplace groups differ from each other. The groups coming from the developing regions, that is, the very groups that have lower average annual incomes, also have more inequitable distribution of income than the Canadian-born or their counterparts from the developed regions. Thus, the income distribution is more polarized in the populations from developing regions than in the populations from developed regions or in the Canadian-born population. On average, females receive 45% less income than males, and there is less polarization of income among them than among males regardless of the place of birth. A part of the explanation lies in the receipt of government transfers which tend to equalize rather than polarize incomes, and older women derive higher proportion of their income from government transfers than older men.

    Release date: 1999-04-21

  • Articles and reports: 89-553-X19980014020
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Our objectives in this chapter are to determine the degree of intergenerational income mobility in Canada during the mid-1980s and 1990s and to investigate whether it has changed over time. In an era of increasing income inequality within a generation, it is important to understand whether equality of opportunity is preserved, or whether increasing polarization in labour market outcomes will be further exacerbated in the next generation.

    Release date: 1998-11-05

  • Journals and periodicals: 89-553-X
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    The contributors to this book examine two broad themes related to the well-being of Canadian youth. First, they document the nature of the labour market facing young adults and how it has changed since the early 1970s. Second, the authors examine how families, communities, and the public sector influence some of the ways in which children become successful and self-reliant adults. The motivation for bringing these essays together has to do with the increasing importance of child well-being in public discourse and the development of public policy. The major message to emerge is that the future of Canada's children is both a good news, and a bad news story. Labour markets have changed dramatically, and on average it is now more difficult to obtain a strong foothold that will lead to increasing prosperity. Many young Canadians, however, are well prepared by their family and community backgrounds to deal with these new challenges, and as young parents are in a position to pass this heritage on to their children. However, this has not been the case for an increasingly larger minority, a group whose children in turn may face greater than average challenges in getting ahead in life. A companion volume published in February of 1998 by Statistics Canada called Government finances and generational equity examines the operation of government taxes and transfers from a generational perspective, focusing on the conduct of fiscal policy and the relative status of individuals in successive generations.

    Release date: 1998-11-05
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Analysis (19)

Analysis (19) (0 to 10 of 19 results)

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2007298
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Using data from the 1976-to-1997 Survey of Consumer Finances and the 1993-to-2004 Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics, we examine developments in family income inequality, income polarization, relative low income, and income redistribution through the tax-transfer system. We conclude that family after-tax-income inequality was stable across the 1980s, but rose during the 1989-to-2004 period.

    Growth in family after-tax-income inequality can be due to an increase in family market-income inequality (pre-tax, pre-transfer), or to a reduction in income redistribution through the tax-transfer system.

    We conclude that the increase in inequality was associated with a rise in family market-income inequality. Redistribution was at least as high in 2004 as it was at earlier cyclical peaks, but it failed to keep up with rapid growth in family market-income inequality in the 1990s.

    We present income inequality, polarization, and low-income statistics for several well-known measures, and use data preparations identical to those used in the Luxembourg Income Study in order to facilitate international comparisons.

    Release date: 2007-05-11

  • Articles and reports: 21-006-X2005002
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This bulletin investigates the spatial distribution of occupational structure and its change between 1991 and 2001.

    Release date: 2005-02-24

  • Articles and reports: 75F0002M2004010
    Description:

    This document offers a set of guidelines for analysing income distributions. It focuses on the basic intuition of the concepts and techniques instead of the equations and technical details.

    Release date: 2004-10-08

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2004227
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This paper examines trends in earnings, using tax-based longitudinal data from the last two decades and synthetic cohort analysis.

    Release date: 2004-08-20

  • Articles and reports: 21-601-M2003063
    Description:

    This paper reviews a broad set of concepts and related measures of territorial income disparity. It then applies these measures to the Canadian context, using income data from income tax returns from 1992 to 1999 for the country.

    Release date: 2003-04-29

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2000160
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    In this paper, we use census tract data to analyse changes in neighbourhood income inequality and residential economic segregation in the eight largest Canadian cities during the 1980-95 period. Is the income gap between richer and poorer neighbourhoods rising? Are high and low-income families increasingly clustered in economically homogeneous neighbourhoods? The main results are an elaboration of the spatial implications of the well documented changes that have occurred in family income and earnings inequality since 1980. We find that between neighbourhood family income (post-transfer/pre-tax) inequality rose in all cities driven by a substantial rise in neighbourhood (employment) earnings inequality. Real average earnings fell, sometimes dramatically, in low-income neighbourhoods in virtually all cities while rising moderately in higher income neighbourhoods. Strikingly, social transfers, which were the main factor stabilizing national level income inequality in the face of rising earnings inequality, had only a modest impact on changes in neighbourhood inequality. Changes in the neighbourhood distribution of earnings signal significant change in the social and economic character of many neighbourhoods. Employment was increasingly concentrated in higher income communities and unemployment in lower income neighbourhoods. Finally, we ask whether neighbourhood inequality rose primarily as a result of rising family income inequality in the city as a whole or because families were increasingly sorting themselves into "like" neighbourhoods so that neighbourhoods were becoming more economically homogeneous (economic "segregation"). We find that economic spatial segregation increased in all cities and was the major factor behind rising neighbourhood inequality in four of the eight cities. A general rise in urban family income inequality was the main factor in the remaining four cities.

    Release date: 2000-12-13

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X19990024875
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Dr. Fellegi considers the challenges facing government statistical agencies and strategies to prepare for these challenges. He first describes the environment of changing information needs and the social, economic and technological developments driving this change. He goes on to describe both internal and external elements of a strategy to meet these evolving needs. Internally, a flexible capacity for survey taking and information gathering must be developed. Externally, contacts must be developed to ensure continuing relevance of statistical programs while maintaining non-political objectivity.

    Release date: 2000-03-01

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M1999129
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    While there are many studies on differences in earnings between immigrants and the native-born or among immigrant groups, they ignore the distribution and concentration of income. These aspects are important for understanding the distribution of economic welfare and consumer behaviour among members and hence are policy relevant.

    Using the 1991 Census data, the distribution and concentration of income have been examined among 15 broad birthplace groups for population aged 55 years and over. About 19% of males and 15% of females receive less than half the median income and obtain 5% and 3% of the aggregate income respectively. About 30% of males and 29% of females receive more than one and half times the median income and obtain 61% and59% of aggregate income respectively. About 51% of males and 56% of females who receive incomes between half and one and half times the median income are termed middle-class and their shares of aggregate income amount to 34 and 38% respectively.

    Although, older immigrants aged 55 years and over, as a group, have roughly the same quartile distribution and concentration of income as their Canadian-born counterparts, the birthplace groups differ from each other. The groups coming from the developing regions, that is, the very groups that have lower average annual incomes, also have more inequitable distribution of income than the Canadian-born or their counterparts from the developed regions. Thus, the income distribution is more polarized in the populations from developing regions than in the populations from developed regions or in the Canadian-born population. On average, females receive 45% less income than males, and there is less polarization of income among them than among males regardless of the place of birth. A part of the explanation lies in the receipt of government transfers which tend to equalize rather than polarize incomes, and older women derive higher proportion of their income from government transfers than older men.

    Release date: 1999-04-21

  • Articles and reports: 89-553-X19980014020
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Our objectives in this chapter are to determine the degree of intergenerational income mobility in Canada during the mid-1980s and 1990s and to investigate whether it has changed over time. In an era of increasing income inequality within a generation, it is important to understand whether equality of opportunity is preserved, or whether increasing polarization in labour market outcomes will be further exacerbated in the next generation.

    Release date: 1998-11-05

  • Journals and periodicals: 89-553-X
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    The contributors to this book examine two broad themes related to the well-being of Canadian youth. First, they document the nature of the labour market facing young adults and how it has changed since the early 1970s. Second, the authors examine how families, communities, and the public sector influence some of the ways in which children become successful and self-reliant adults. The motivation for bringing these essays together has to do with the increasing importance of child well-being in public discourse and the development of public policy. The major message to emerge is that the future of Canada's children is both a good news, and a bad news story. Labour markets have changed dramatically, and on average it is now more difficult to obtain a strong foothold that will lead to increasing prosperity. Many young Canadians, however, are well prepared by their family and community backgrounds to deal with these new challenges, and as young parents are in a position to pass this heritage on to their children. However, this has not been the case for an increasingly larger minority, a group whose children in turn may face greater than average challenges in getting ahead in life. A companion volume published in February of 1998 by Statistics Canada called Government finances and generational equity examines the operation of government taxes and transfers from a generational perspective, focusing on the conduct of fiscal policy and the relative status of individuals in successive generations.

    Release date: 1998-11-05
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