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  • Articles and reports: 18-001-X2017002
    Description:

    This working paper presents a methodology to measure remoteness at the community level. The method takes into account some of the recent literature on the subject, as well as new computational opportunities provided by the integration of official statistics with data from non-official statistical sources. The approach that was used in the computations accounts for multiple points of access to services; it also establishes a continuum between communities with different transportation infrastructures and connectivity while at the same time retaining the information on the community transportation infrastructures in the database. In addition, a method to implement accessibility measures to selected services is also outlined and a sample of accessibility measures are computed.

    Release date: 2017-05-09

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2014092
    Geography: Province or territory
    Description:

    Using data from the Provincial KLEMS database, this paper asks whether provincial economies have undergone structural change in their business sectors since 2000. It does so by applying a measure of industrial change (the dissimilarity index) using measures of output (real GDP) and hours worked. The paper also develops a statistical methodology to test whether the shifts in the industrial composition of output and hours worked over the period are due to random year-over-year changes in industrial structure or long-term systematic change in the structure of provincial economies. The paper is designed to inform discussion and analysis of recent changes in industrial composition at the national level, notably, the decline in manufacturing output and the concomitant rise of resource industries, and the implications of this change for provincial economies.

    Release date: 2014-05-07

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2010065
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, the authors provide a detailed social accounting matrix (SAM), which incorporates the income and financial flows into the standard input-output matrix, for the Canadian economy for 2004. Second, they use the SAM to assess the strength of the real-financial linkages by calculating and comparing real SAM multipliers and financial social accounting matrix (FSAM) multipliers. For FSAM multipliers, financial flows are endogenous, whereas for real SAM multipliers they are not. The results show that taking into account financial flows increases the impact of a final demand shock on Canadian output. Financial flows also play an important role in determining the cumulative effect of an income shock or the availability of investment funds. Between 2008 and the first half of 2009, financial institutions shifted their investments toward government bonds, short-term paper, and foreign investments. This shift together with the fact that non-financial institutions were unwilling or unable to increase their financial liabilities, led to estimated declines in all GDP multipliers between 2008 and the first half of 2009 (2009H1). The main advantage of using the extended input-output analysis is that it provides a simple framework, with very few assumptions, which allows the assessment of the strength of real-financial linkages by means of multipliers. However, the methodology is subject to the Lucas critique, that as shocks shift prices, agents cannot adjust. Such a framework is, nevertheless, appropriate in short-term impact analysis such as this study.

    Release date: 2011-05-20

  • Articles and reports: 11-522-X200800010957
    Description:

    Business surveys differ from surveys of populations of individual persons or households in many respects. Two of the most important differences are (a) that respondents in business surveys do not answer questions about characteristics of themselves (such as their experiences, behaviours, attitudes and feelings) but about characteristics of organizations (such as their size, revenues, policies, and strategies) and (b) that they answer these questions as an informant for that organization. Academic business surveys differ from other business surveys, such as of national statistical agencies, in many respects as well. The one most important difference is that academic business surveys usually do not aim at generating descriptive statistics but at testing hypotheses, i.e. relations between variables. Response rates in academic business surveys are very low, which implies a huge risk of non-response bias. Usually no attempt is made to assess the extent of non-response bias and published survey results might, therefore, not be a correct reflection of actual relations within the population, which in return increases the likelihood that the reported test result is not correct.

    This paper provides an analysis of how (the risk of) non-response bias is discussed in research papers published in top management journals. It demonstrates that non-response bias is not assessed to a sufficient degree and that, if attempted at all, correction of non-response bias is difficult or very costly in practice. Three approaches to dealing with this problem are presented and discussed:(a) obtaining data by other means than questionnaires;(b) conducting surveys of very small populations; and(c) conducting surveys of very small samples.

    It will be discussed why these approaches are appropriate means of testing hypotheses in populations. Trade-offs regarding the selection of an approach will be discussed as well.

    Release date: 2009-12-03

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2003193
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This paper outlines the size of the turnover in plants that have entered and exited the Canadian manufacturing sector during the three periods: 1973-1979, 1979-1988 and 1988-1997. It also examines the contribution of plant turnover to labour productivity growth in the manufacturing sector over the three periods. Plant turnover makes a significant contribution to productivity growth as more productive entrants replace exiting plants that are less productive. A disproportionately large fraction of the contribution of plant turnover to productivity growth is due to multi-plant or foreign-controlled firms closing down and opening up new plants. The plants opened up by multi-plant or foreign-controlled firms are typically much more productive than those opened by single-plant or domestic-controlled.

    Release date: 2003-04-02

  • Articles and reports: 21-601-M2002057
    Description:

    This study provides a financial profile of Canadian food industry corporations that were acquired during the period 1996 to 1998.

    Release date: 2002-10-16

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2002189
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Understanding the importance of the dynamic entry process in the Canadian economy involves measuring size of entry. The main purpose of this paper is to summarize the information we have on the amount of entry in Canada.

    The paper also fulfils another purpose. Some studies have focused on cross-country comparisons (Geroski and Schwalbach 1991; OECD 2001). Interpretation of the results of these studies is difficult unless methodological issues regarding how entry is measured are addressed. Without an understanding of the extent to which different databases produce different results, international comparisons are difficult to evaluate. Cross-country comparisons that are derived from extremely different data sources may be misleading because of the lack of comparability.

    Since there is more than one reliable database that can be used to estimate entry in Canada, this paper asks how measured entry rates vary across different Canadian databases. By examining the difference in entry rates produced by these databases, we provide an estimate of the range or confidence interval that should be used in evaluating whether there are real differences in measured entry rates across countries. We also offer guidance as to the questions that should be asked about the databases used by researchers who conduct international studies. Finally, we make suggestions as to areas of comparison on which international studies should focus.

    Release date: 2002-05-29

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M1994071
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    The statistical observation that small firms have created the majority of new jobs during the 1980s has had a tremendous influence on public policy. Governmentshave looked to the small firm sector for employment growth, and have promoted policies to augment this expansion. However, recent research in the US suggeststhat net job creation in the small firm sector may have been overestimated, relative to that in large firms. This paper addresses various measurement issues raised inthe recent research, and uses a very unique Canadian longitudinal data set that encompasses all companies in the Canadian economy to reassess the issue of jobcreation by firm size. We conclude that over the 1978-92 period, for both the entire Canadian economy and the manufacturing sector, the growth rate of (net)employment decreases monotonically as the size of firm increases, no matter which method of sizing firms is used. The small firm sector has accounted for adisproportionate share of both gross job gains and job losses, and in that aggregate, accounted for a disproportionate share of the employment increase over theperiod. Measurement does matter, however, as the magnitude of the difference in the growth rates of small and large firms is very sensitive to the measurementapproaches used. The paper also produces results for various industrial sectors, asks whether the more rapid growth in industries with a high proportion of smallfirms is responsible for the findings at the all-economy level, and examines employment growth in existing small and large firms (ie excluding births). It is found thatemployment growth in the population of existing small and large firms is very similar.

    Release date: 1994-11-16
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Analysis (8)

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  • Articles and reports: 18-001-X2017002
    Description:

    This working paper presents a methodology to measure remoteness at the community level. The method takes into account some of the recent literature on the subject, as well as new computational opportunities provided by the integration of official statistics with data from non-official statistical sources. The approach that was used in the computations accounts for multiple points of access to services; it also establishes a continuum between communities with different transportation infrastructures and connectivity while at the same time retaining the information on the community transportation infrastructures in the database. In addition, a method to implement accessibility measures to selected services is also outlined and a sample of accessibility measures are computed.

    Release date: 2017-05-09

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2014092
    Geography: Province or territory
    Description:

    Using data from the Provincial KLEMS database, this paper asks whether provincial economies have undergone structural change in their business sectors since 2000. It does so by applying a measure of industrial change (the dissimilarity index) using measures of output (real GDP) and hours worked. The paper also develops a statistical methodology to test whether the shifts in the industrial composition of output and hours worked over the period are due to random year-over-year changes in industrial structure or long-term systematic change in the structure of provincial economies. The paper is designed to inform discussion and analysis of recent changes in industrial composition at the national level, notably, the decline in manufacturing output and the concomitant rise of resource industries, and the implications of this change for provincial economies.

    Release date: 2014-05-07

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2010065
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, the authors provide a detailed social accounting matrix (SAM), which incorporates the income and financial flows into the standard input-output matrix, for the Canadian economy for 2004. Second, they use the SAM to assess the strength of the real-financial linkages by calculating and comparing real SAM multipliers and financial social accounting matrix (FSAM) multipliers. For FSAM multipliers, financial flows are endogenous, whereas for real SAM multipliers they are not. The results show that taking into account financial flows increases the impact of a final demand shock on Canadian output. Financial flows also play an important role in determining the cumulative effect of an income shock or the availability of investment funds. Between 2008 and the first half of 2009, financial institutions shifted their investments toward government bonds, short-term paper, and foreign investments. This shift together with the fact that non-financial institutions were unwilling or unable to increase their financial liabilities, led to estimated declines in all GDP multipliers between 2008 and the first half of 2009 (2009H1). The main advantage of using the extended input-output analysis is that it provides a simple framework, with very few assumptions, which allows the assessment of the strength of real-financial linkages by means of multipliers. However, the methodology is subject to the Lucas critique, that as shocks shift prices, agents cannot adjust. Such a framework is, nevertheless, appropriate in short-term impact analysis such as this study.

    Release date: 2011-05-20

  • Articles and reports: 11-522-X200800010957
    Description:

    Business surveys differ from surveys of populations of individual persons or households in many respects. Two of the most important differences are (a) that respondents in business surveys do not answer questions about characteristics of themselves (such as their experiences, behaviours, attitudes and feelings) but about characteristics of organizations (such as their size, revenues, policies, and strategies) and (b) that they answer these questions as an informant for that organization. Academic business surveys differ from other business surveys, such as of national statistical agencies, in many respects as well. The one most important difference is that academic business surveys usually do not aim at generating descriptive statistics but at testing hypotheses, i.e. relations between variables. Response rates in academic business surveys are very low, which implies a huge risk of non-response bias. Usually no attempt is made to assess the extent of non-response bias and published survey results might, therefore, not be a correct reflection of actual relations within the population, which in return increases the likelihood that the reported test result is not correct.

    This paper provides an analysis of how (the risk of) non-response bias is discussed in research papers published in top management journals. It demonstrates that non-response bias is not assessed to a sufficient degree and that, if attempted at all, correction of non-response bias is difficult or very costly in practice. Three approaches to dealing with this problem are presented and discussed:(a) obtaining data by other means than questionnaires;(b) conducting surveys of very small populations; and(c) conducting surveys of very small samples.

    It will be discussed why these approaches are appropriate means of testing hypotheses in populations. Trade-offs regarding the selection of an approach will be discussed as well.

    Release date: 2009-12-03

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2003193
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This paper outlines the size of the turnover in plants that have entered and exited the Canadian manufacturing sector during the three periods: 1973-1979, 1979-1988 and 1988-1997. It also examines the contribution of plant turnover to labour productivity growth in the manufacturing sector over the three periods. Plant turnover makes a significant contribution to productivity growth as more productive entrants replace exiting plants that are less productive. A disproportionately large fraction of the contribution of plant turnover to productivity growth is due to multi-plant or foreign-controlled firms closing down and opening up new plants. The plants opened up by multi-plant or foreign-controlled firms are typically much more productive than those opened by single-plant or domestic-controlled.

    Release date: 2003-04-02

  • Articles and reports: 21-601-M2002057
    Description:

    This study provides a financial profile of Canadian food industry corporations that were acquired during the period 1996 to 1998.

    Release date: 2002-10-16

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2002189
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Understanding the importance of the dynamic entry process in the Canadian economy involves measuring size of entry. The main purpose of this paper is to summarize the information we have on the amount of entry in Canada.

    The paper also fulfils another purpose. Some studies have focused on cross-country comparisons (Geroski and Schwalbach 1991; OECD 2001). Interpretation of the results of these studies is difficult unless methodological issues regarding how entry is measured are addressed. Without an understanding of the extent to which different databases produce different results, international comparisons are difficult to evaluate. Cross-country comparisons that are derived from extremely different data sources may be misleading because of the lack of comparability.

    Since there is more than one reliable database that can be used to estimate entry in Canada, this paper asks how measured entry rates vary across different Canadian databases. By examining the difference in entry rates produced by these databases, we provide an estimate of the range or confidence interval that should be used in evaluating whether there are real differences in measured entry rates across countries. We also offer guidance as to the questions that should be asked about the databases used by researchers who conduct international studies. Finally, we make suggestions as to areas of comparison on which international studies should focus.

    Release date: 2002-05-29

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M1994071
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    The statistical observation that small firms have created the majority of new jobs during the 1980s has had a tremendous influence on public policy. Governmentshave looked to the small firm sector for employment growth, and have promoted policies to augment this expansion. However, recent research in the US suggeststhat net job creation in the small firm sector may have been overestimated, relative to that in large firms. This paper addresses various measurement issues raised inthe recent research, and uses a very unique Canadian longitudinal data set that encompasses all companies in the Canadian economy to reassess the issue of jobcreation by firm size. We conclude that over the 1978-92 period, for both the entire Canadian economy and the manufacturing sector, the growth rate of (net)employment decreases monotonically as the size of firm increases, no matter which method of sizing firms is used. The small firm sector has accounted for adisproportionate share of both gross job gains and job losses, and in that aggregate, accounted for a disproportionate share of the employment increase over theperiod. Measurement does matter, however, as the magnitude of the difference in the growth rates of small and large firms is very sensitive to the measurementapproaches used. The paper also produces results for various industrial sectors, asks whether the more rapid growth in industries with a high proportion of smallfirms is responsible for the findings at the all-economy level, and examines employment growth in existing small and large firms (ie excluding births). It is found thatemployment growth in the population of existing small and large firms is very similar.

    Release date: 1994-11-16
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