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  • Public use microdata: 81M0011X
    Description:

    This survey was designed to determine such factors as: the extent to which graduates of postsecondary programs had been successful in obtaining employment since graduation; the relationship between the graduates' programs of study and the employment subsequently obtained; the graduates' job and career satisfaction; the rates of under-employment and unemployment; the type of employment obtained related to career expectations and qualification requirements; and the influence of postsecondary education on occupational achievement. The information is directed towards policy makers, researchers, educators, employers and young adults-interested in postsecondary education and the transition from school to work of trade/vocational, college and university graduates.

    Release date: 2020-01-14

  • Articles and reports: 89-503-X201500114640
    Description:

    Women have become increasingly well-educated, and today their share in the Canadian labour market is larger than ever. This chapter of Women in Canada examines women’s educational experiences, with a focus on STEM (science, technology, engineering and mathematics and computer science) education and skills. Topics include a profile of women’s education in Canada, the skills of young girls and women, field-of-study patterns at the postsecondary level, and labour market outcomes, including earnings.

    Release date: 2016-07-06

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2008317
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This study estimates the effect of an additional year of schooling (Grade 10) on academic performance, with the particular aim of understanding the role of schooling in shaping the gender and income divides in academic performance. To identify the returns to schooling, the study takes advantage of a setting whereby standardized tests were administered to large samples of students of very close age, but who were in different school grades as a result of school-entry laws, thus creating a sharp discontinuity in school grades. The findings suggest that one additional year of high school (Grade 10) is associated with a large improvement in overall reading and mathematics performance, and that it had a smaller improvement in science performance. However, the improvements are not equally distributed: mathematics scores improve more for boys than for girls, and reading and science scores improve more for lower than for higher income youth. Most importantly, we find no evidence that girls or higher income youth benefit more from an additional year of high school in any test area. These findings suggest that the key to understanding the weaker academic performance of boys and lower income youth may lie in earlier school years, the home or at birth.

    Release date: 2008-11-07

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2006283
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    In this study, I explore the relationship between the presence of a local university in a city and university and college participation among local youth. The evidence is drawn from Census data, along with information on the creation of new university degree-granting institutions in Canada. Students who do not have access to a local university are far less likely to go on to university than students who grew up near a university, likely due to the added cost of moving away to attend, as opposed to differences in other factors (e.g., family income, parental education, academic achievement). When distant students are faced with a local option, however, their probability of attendance substantially increases. Specifically, the creation of a local degree-granting institution is associated with a 28.1% increase in university attendance among local youth, and large increases were registered in each city affected. However, the increase in university participation came at the expense of college participation in most cities. Furthermore, not everyone benefited equally from new universities. In particular, students from lower income families saw the largest increase in university participation, which is consistent with the notion that distance poses a financial barrier. Also, local aboriginal youth only saw a slight increase in university participation when faced with a local university option.

    Release date: 2007-01-25

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2006275
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This study assesses the effects of literacy and numeracy skills on the labour market outcomes of Canadian high school drop-outs. We find that these skills have significant effects on the probability of being employed and on hours and weeks of work for both men and women, and also have strong (direct) influences on men's, but not women's, incomes. These findings imply that high school curricula that develop literacy and numeracy skills could provide significant returns even for those who do not complete their programs and wind up at the lower end of the labour market. Our findings similarly suggest that training programs catering to drop-outs could substantially improve these individuals' labour market outcomes by developing these basic skills. The results also have implications for dual labour market theory, since it is often assumed that the secondary market is characterized by minimal returns to human capital'contrary to what is found here.

    Release date: 2006-03-27

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2005270
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This paper adopts the decomposition technique of DiNardo, Fortin and Lemieux (DFL, 1996) to decompose provincial differences in the distribution of Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) test scores and assesses the relative contribution of provincial differences in the distribution of "class size" and time-in-term, other school factors and student background factors. Class size and time-in-term are both important school choice variables and we examine how provincial achievement differences would change if the Alberta distribution of class size and time-in-term prevailed in the other provinces. Results differ by province, and for provinces where mean achievement gaps would be lower, not all students would benefit.

    Release date: 2005-11-22

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2004233
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    In Canada's federal system for economic (skilled) class immigrant selection, education is treated as if it is homogeneous and only differs in quantity. Some provinces, however, differentiate based on postsecondary field of study. This study explores the economic implications of field of study for each sex, and for two subgroups of immigrants, those educated in Canada and those educated elsewhere .

    Field of study is not observed to explain much of the earnings difference between immigrants and the Canadian born, though it is relatively more important for males than females in doing so. Interestingly, while there are a few exceptions, a general pattern is observed whereby the differences between high- and low-earning fields are not as large for immigrants as for the Canadian born. Similarly, social assistance receipt has smaller variance across fields for immigrants than for the Canadian born. Nevertheless, substantial inter-field differences are observed for each immigrant group.

    Release date: 2004-10-28

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2004232
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This study extends previous work on the evolution of the education premium, and investigates the existence of diverging university/high school earnings ratio trends across industries in the knowledge-based economy. The study also discusses the changing demand for high-skilled workers by comparing relative wages of university graduates holding degrees in "applied" fields to those of other university graduates (the "field" premium).

    Release date: 2004-09-29

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X200410613121
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This paper examines the problems new immigrants have when looking for a job in Canada, including non-recognition of their credentials, their education level, and their experience abroad.

    Release date: 2004-09-21
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Analysis (20)

Analysis (20) (0 to 10 of 20 results)

  • Articles and reports: 89-503-X201500114640
    Description:

    Women have become increasingly well-educated, and today their share in the Canadian labour market is larger than ever. This chapter of Women in Canada examines women’s educational experiences, with a focus on STEM (science, technology, engineering and mathematics and computer science) education and skills. Topics include a profile of women’s education in Canada, the skills of young girls and women, field-of-study patterns at the postsecondary level, and labour market outcomes, including earnings.

    Release date: 2016-07-06

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2008317
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This study estimates the effect of an additional year of schooling (Grade 10) on academic performance, with the particular aim of understanding the role of schooling in shaping the gender and income divides in academic performance. To identify the returns to schooling, the study takes advantage of a setting whereby standardized tests were administered to large samples of students of very close age, but who were in different school grades as a result of school-entry laws, thus creating a sharp discontinuity in school grades. The findings suggest that one additional year of high school (Grade 10) is associated with a large improvement in overall reading and mathematics performance, and that it had a smaller improvement in science performance. However, the improvements are not equally distributed: mathematics scores improve more for boys than for girls, and reading and science scores improve more for lower than for higher income youth. Most importantly, we find no evidence that girls or higher income youth benefit more from an additional year of high school in any test area. These findings suggest that the key to understanding the weaker academic performance of boys and lower income youth may lie in earlier school years, the home or at birth.

    Release date: 2008-11-07

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2006283
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    In this study, I explore the relationship between the presence of a local university in a city and university and college participation among local youth. The evidence is drawn from Census data, along with information on the creation of new university degree-granting institutions in Canada. Students who do not have access to a local university are far less likely to go on to university than students who grew up near a university, likely due to the added cost of moving away to attend, as opposed to differences in other factors (e.g., family income, parental education, academic achievement). When distant students are faced with a local option, however, their probability of attendance substantially increases. Specifically, the creation of a local degree-granting institution is associated with a 28.1% increase in university attendance among local youth, and large increases were registered in each city affected. However, the increase in university participation came at the expense of college participation in most cities. Furthermore, not everyone benefited equally from new universities. In particular, students from lower income families saw the largest increase in university participation, which is consistent with the notion that distance poses a financial barrier. Also, local aboriginal youth only saw a slight increase in university participation when faced with a local university option.

    Release date: 2007-01-25

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2006275
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This study assesses the effects of literacy and numeracy skills on the labour market outcomes of Canadian high school drop-outs. We find that these skills have significant effects on the probability of being employed and on hours and weeks of work for both men and women, and also have strong (direct) influences on men's, but not women's, incomes. These findings imply that high school curricula that develop literacy and numeracy skills could provide significant returns even for those who do not complete their programs and wind up at the lower end of the labour market. Our findings similarly suggest that training programs catering to drop-outs could substantially improve these individuals' labour market outcomes by developing these basic skills. The results also have implications for dual labour market theory, since it is often assumed that the secondary market is characterized by minimal returns to human capital'contrary to what is found here.

    Release date: 2006-03-27

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2005270
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This paper adopts the decomposition technique of DiNardo, Fortin and Lemieux (DFL, 1996) to decompose provincial differences in the distribution of Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) test scores and assesses the relative contribution of provincial differences in the distribution of "class size" and time-in-term, other school factors and student background factors. Class size and time-in-term are both important school choice variables and we examine how provincial achievement differences would change if the Alberta distribution of class size and time-in-term prevailed in the other provinces. Results differ by province, and for provinces where mean achievement gaps would be lower, not all students would benefit.

    Release date: 2005-11-22

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2004233
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    In Canada's federal system for economic (skilled) class immigrant selection, education is treated as if it is homogeneous and only differs in quantity. Some provinces, however, differentiate based on postsecondary field of study. This study explores the economic implications of field of study for each sex, and for two subgroups of immigrants, those educated in Canada and those educated elsewhere .

    Field of study is not observed to explain much of the earnings difference between immigrants and the Canadian born, though it is relatively more important for males than females in doing so. Interestingly, while there are a few exceptions, a general pattern is observed whereby the differences between high- and low-earning fields are not as large for immigrants as for the Canadian born. Similarly, social assistance receipt has smaller variance across fields for immigrants than for the Canadian born. Nevertheless, substantial inter-field differences are observed for each immigrant group.

    Release date: 2004-10-28

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2004232
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This study extends previous work on the evolution of the education premium, and investigates the existence of diverging university/high school earnings ratio trends across industries in the knowledge-based economy. The study also discusses the changing demand for high-skilled workers by comparing relative wages of university graduates holding degrees in "applied" fields to those of other university graduates (the "field" premium).

    Release date: 2004-09-29

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X200410613121
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This paper examines the problems new immigrants have when looking for a job in Canada, including non-recognition of their credentials, their education level, and their experience abroad.

    Release date: 2004-09-21

  • Articles and reports: 81-595-M2003003
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This report provides a description of the labour-market outcomes experienced by 1995 postsecondary graduates, by gender and by field of specialization.

    Release date: 2003-02-24

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2003196
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This paper uses the Statistics Canada Survey of Literacy Skills Used in Daily Activities (LSUDA) to investigate minority-white income differences and the role cognitive skills play in those patterns. Some minority groups have substantially lower (tested) levels of literacy and numeracy skills than whites and other more economically successful minorities and, in the case of certain male groups, these differences play a significant role in explaining the observed income patterns. The ethnic-white income gaps are, however, much smaller for women, and the literacy and numeracy variables do not have much of a role to play in explaining those differences. Various policy implications are discussed.

    Release date: 2003-01-24
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