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All (78) (0 to 10 of 78 results)

  • Articles and reports: 89-28-0001201800100006
    Description:

    This edition presents the most recent numbers of students, teachers, and student performance in reading, math and science as measured by the 2015 Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA).

    Release date: 2018-09-10

  • Articles and reports: 89-503-X201500114640
    Description:

    Women have become increasingly well-educated, and today their share in the Canadian labour market is larger than ever. This chapter of Women in Canada examines women’s educational experiences, with a focus on STEM (science, technology, engineering and mathematics and computer science) education and skills. Topics include a profile of women’s education in Canada, the skills of young girls and women, field-of-study patterns at the postsecondary level, and labour market outcomes, including earnings.

    Release date: 2016-07-06

  • Articles and reports: 75-006-X201500114247
    Description:

    This article examines regional differences in the math and reading skills of immigrant children aged 15 based on data from the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). It also examines regional differences in high-school and university completion rates among young immigrants who came to Canada before the age of 15 using National Household Survey (NHS) data. Throughout the article, comparisons are made with the children of the Canadian-born (third- or higher-generation Canadians).

    Release date: 2015-11-18

  • Articles and reports: 75-006-X201300111874
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Women represent the majority of young university graduates, but are still underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, mathematics and computer sciences (STEM) fields. This article provides more information on women with STEM university degrees, and examines whether mathematical abilities in high school are related to gender differences in STEM university programs.

    Release date: 2013-12-18

  • Articles and reports: 81-595-M2013100
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Past research has revealed that young women are more likely to enter postsecondary programs that have lower returns in the labour market, such as the arts, humanities and social sciences. Young men, conversely, tend to enrol in and graduate from programs in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM), which generally have greater labour market returns. Factors such as academic interests, achievement test scores, and high-school marks can affect later university program choice. Using the linked Youth in Transition Survey (YITS) - Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) data, the current paper examines the relationship between mathematics and science test scores at age 15 and first program choice in university, with a focus on differences in ability in mathematics and science by gender. Generally speaking, the results reveal that the intersection of gender and ability does matter; even young women of high mathematical ability are less likely to enter STEM fields than young men of similar or even lesser mathematical ability. This implies that something other than pure ability is affecting young women's likelihood of entering STEM programs in university.

    Release date: 2013-12-18

  • Articles and reports: 81-004-X201200111617
    Description:

    Participants in the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) were asked to indicate how much time they spent studying or doing homework each week in the three PISA subject areas of language arts, mathematics and science. This article looks at the study habits of female and male 15-year-old students in 2009 and how various approaches to the completion of schoolwork are associated with differences in PISA scores.

    Release date: 2012-05-01

  • Articles and reports: 81-004-X200900511050
    Description:

    This article draws on information contained in the Postsecondary Student Information System (PSIS), which includes annual data from 1992 to 2007, to provide an overview of trends in university graduations in Canada and the provinces. That overview provides an overall view of the characteristics of university graduates over the period, from trends in the gender and age composition of graduates and in the share of graduates accounted for by international students to changes in the fields of study chosen by graduates.

    Release date: 2009-12-16

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2008317
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This study estimates the effect of an additional year of schooling (Grade 10) on academic performance, with the particular aim of understanding the role of schooling in shaping the gender and income divides in academic performance. To identify the returns to schooling, the study takes advantage of a setting whereby standardized tests were administered to large samples of students of very close age, but who were in different school grades as a result of school-entry laws, thus creating a sharp discontinuity in school grades. The findings suggest that one additional year of high school (Grade 10) is associated with a large improvement in overall reading and mathematics performance, and that it had a smaller improvement in science performance. However, the improvements are not equally distributed: mathematics scores improve more for boys than for girls, and reading and science scores improve more for lower than for higher income youth. Most importantly, we find no evidence that girls or higher income youth benefit more from an additional year of high school in any test area. These findings suggest that the key to understanding the weaker academic performance of boys and lower income youth may lie in earlier school years, the home or at birth.

    Release date: 2008-11-07

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X200800110612
    Description:

    Lehtonen and Veijanen (1999) proposed a new model-assisted generalized regression (GREG) estimator of a small area mean under a two-level model. They have shown that the proposed estimator performs better than the customary GREG estimator in terms of average absolute relative bias and average median absolute relative error. We derive the mean squared error (MSE) of the new GREG estimator under the two-level model and compare it to the MSE of the best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) estimator. We also provide empirical results on the relative efficiency of the estimators. We show that the new GREG estimator exhibits better performance relative to the customary GREG estimator in terms of average MSE and average absolute relative error. We also show that, due to borrowing strength from related small areas, the EBLUP estimator exhibits significantly better performance relative to the customary GREG and the new GREG estimators. We provide simulation results under a model-based set-up as well as under a real finite population.

    Release date: 2008-06-26

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X200800110619
    Description:

    Small area prediction based on random effects, called EBLUP, is a procedure for constructing estimates for small geographical areas or small subpopulations using existing survey data. The total of the small area predictors is often forced to equal the direct survey estimate and such predictors are said to be calibrated. Several calibrated predictors are reviewed and a criterion that unifies the derivation of these calibrated predictors is presented. The predictor that is the unique best linear unbiased predictor under the criterion is derived and the mean square error of the calibrated predictors is discussed. Implicit in the imposition of the restriction is the possibility that the small area model is misspecified and the predictors are biased. Augmented models with one additional explanatory variable for which the usual small area predictors achieve the self-calibrated property are considered. Simulations demonstrate that calibrated predictors have slightly smaller bias compared to those of the usual EBLUP predictor. However, if the bias is a concern, a better approach is to use an augmented model with an added auxiliary variable that is a function of area size. In the simulation, the predictors based on the augmented model had smaller MSE than EBLUP when the incorrect model was used for prediction. Furthermore, there was a very small increase in MSE relative to EBLUP if the auxiliary variable was added to the correct model.

    Release date: 2008-06-26
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  • Articles and reports: 89-28-0001201800100006
    Description:

    This edition presents the most recent numbers of students, teachers, and student performance in reading, math and science as measured by the 2015 Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA).

    Release date: 2018-09-10

  • Articles and reports: 89-503-X201500114640
    Description:

    Women have become increasingly well-educated, and today their share in the Canadian labour market is larger than ever. This chapter of Women in Canada examines women’s educational experiences, with a focus on STEM (science, technology, engineering and mathematics and computer science) education and skills. Topics include a profile of women’s education in Canada, the skills of young girls and women, field-of-study patterns at the postsecondary level, and labour market outcomes, including earnings.

    Release date: 2016-07-06

  • Articles and reports: 75-006-X201500114247
    Description:

    This article examines regional differences in the math and reading skills of immigrant children aged 15 based on data from the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). It also examines regional differences in high-school and university completion rates among young immigrants who came to Canada before the age of 15 using National Household Survey (NHS) data. Throughout the article, comparisons are made with the children of the Canadian-born (third- or higher-generation Canadians).

    Release date: 2015-11-18

  • Articles and reports: 75-006-X201300111874
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Women represent the majority of young university graduates, but are still underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, mathematics and computer sciences (STEM) fields. This article provides more information on women with STEM university degrees, and examines whether mathematical abilities in high school are related to gender differences in STEM university programs.

    Release date: 2013-12-18

  • Articles and reports: 81-595-M2013100
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Past research has revealed that young women are more likely to enter postsecondary programs that have lower returns in the labour market, such as the arts, humanities and social sciences. Young men, conversely, tend to enrol in and graduate from programs in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM), which generally have greater labour market returns. Factors such as academic interests, achievement test scores, and high-school marks can affect later university program choice. Using the linked Youth in Transition Survey (YITS) - Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) data, the current paper examines the relationship between mathematics and science test scores at age 15 and first program choice in university, with a focus on differences in ability in mathematics and science by gender. Generally speaking, the results reveal that the intersection of gender and ability does matter; even young women of high mathematical ability are less likely to enter STEM fields than young men of similar or even lesser mathematical ability. This implies that something other than pure ability is affecting young women's likelihood of entering STEM programs in university.

    Release date: 2013-12-18

  • Articles and reports: 81-004-X201200111617
    Description:

    Participants in the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) were asked to indicate how much time they spent studying or doing homework each week in the three PISA subject areas of language arts, mathematics and science. This article looks at the study habits of female and male 15-year-old students in 2009 and how various approaches to the completion of schoolwork are associated with differences in PISA scores.

    Release date: 2012-05-01

  • Articles and reports: 81-004-X200900511050
    Description:

    This article draws on information contained in the Postsecondary Student Information System (PSIS), which includes annual data from 1992 to 2007, to provide an overview of trends in university graduations in Canada and the provinces. That overview provides an overall view of the characteristics of university graduates over the period, from trends in the gender and age composition of graduates and in the share of graduates accounted for by international students to changes in the fields of study chosen by graduates.

    Release date: 2009-12-16

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2008317
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This study estimates the effect of an additional year of schooling (Grade 10) on academic performance, with the particular aim of understanding the role of schooling in shaping the gender and income divides in academic performance. To identify the returns to schooling, the study takes advantage of a setting whereby standardized tests were administered to large samples of students of very close age, but who were in different school grades as a result of school-entry laws, thus creating a sharp discontinuity in school grades. The findings suggest that one additional year of high school (Grade 10) is associated with a large improvement in overall reading and mathematics performance, and that it had a smaller improvement in science performance. However, the improvements are not equally distributed: mathematics scores improve more for boys than for girls, and reading and science scores improve more for lower than for higher income youth. Most importantly, we find no evidence that girls or higher income youth benefit more from an additional year of high school in any test area. These findings suggest that the key to understanding the weaker academic performance of boys and lower income youth may lie in earlier school years, the home or at birth.

    Release date: 2008-11-07

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X200800110612
    Description:

    Lehtonen and Veijanen (1999) proposed a new model-assisted generalized regression (GREG) estimator of a small area mean under a two-level model. They have shown that the proposed estimator performs better than the customary GREG estimator in terms of average absolute relative bias and average median absolute relative error. We derive the mean squared error (MSE) of the new GREG estimator under the two-level model and compare it to the MSE of the best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) estimator. We also provide empirical results on the relative efficiency of the estimators. We show that the new GREG estimator exhibits better performance relative to the customary GREG estimator in terms of average MSE and average absolute relative error. We also show that, due to borrowing strength from related small areas, the EBLUP estimator exhibits significantly better performance relative to the customary GREG and the new GREG estimators. We provide simulation results under a model-based set-up as well as under a real finite population.

    Release date: 2008-06-26

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X200800110619
    Description:

    Small area prediction based on random effects, called EBLUP, is a procedure for constructing estimates for small geographical areas or small subpopulations using existing survey data. The total of the small area predictors is often forced to equal the direct survey estimate and such predictors are said to be calibrated. Several calibrated predictors are reviewed and a criterion that unifies the derivation of these calibrated predictors is presented. The predictor that is the unique best linear unbiased predictor under the criterion is derived and the mean square error of the calibrated predictors is discussed. Implicit in the imposition of the restriction is the possibility that the small area model is misspecified and the predictors are biased. Augmented models with one additional explanatory variable for which the usual small area predictors achieve the self-calibrated property are considered. Simulations demonstrate that calibrated predictors have slightly smaller bias compared to those of the usual EBLUP predictor. However, if the bias is a concern, a better approach is to use an augmented model with an added auxiliary variable that is a function of area size. In the simulation, the predictors based on the augmented model had smaller MSE than EBLUP when the incorrect model was used for prediction. Furthermore, there was a very small increase in MSE relative to EBLUP if the auxiliary variable was added to the correct model.

    Release date: 2008-06-26
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