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  • Articles and reports: 89-653-X2019004
    Description:

    This paper uses the 2017 Aboriginal Peoples Survey to assess the employment characteristics of First Nations men and women, including occupation, industry and full-time/part-time employment. A number of other outcomes, influenced by these characteristics, are further explored, such as job satisfaction, skills, health, presence of disability, and measures of economic well-being such as food security.

    Release date: 2019-06-13

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2014357
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    An emerging area of subjective well-being (SWB) research is centered on the differences in the levels of SWB both across countries and among geographic regions within a country. The consideration of geographic differences would extend our knowledge about the determinants of SWB from "internal" factors of personality traits and individuals' socio-demographic characteristics to "external factors" embedded in individuals' environments. An issue with important theoretical and policy implications is whether the income of others in the same geographic area is associated with individuals' SWB. The association could be positive if people benefit from the improved resources, amenities, and social capital in high-income areas. The association could also be negative if people tend to emulate the lifestyles of their more affluent neighbours. Related empirical studies so far have not come to a consensus on this question.

    The present study attempts to contribute to this issue in two significant ways. First, this study examines whether the effect of the average income in a geographic area (locality income) on SWB is sensitive to the scale of geographic units. With a very large sample of survey respondents nested within three hierarchical levels of geographic areas, this study provides reliable estimates of the association of SWB with average incomes in immediate neighbourhoods (defined as "census dissemination areas"), local communities ("census tracts"), and municipalities ("census subdivisions"). Second, this study examines how the choice of control variables influences the estimated effect of locality income. By considering the effects of individual demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, self-evaluated general health, and area-level attributes in a sequential manner, it is possible to discuss the likely mechanisms through which locality income is related to individuals' SWB.

    Release date: 2014-02-20

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2010322
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    In this paper, the Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Canada (LSIC) is used to examine how immigrants in the 2000-2001 landing cohort subjectively assess their life in Canada. The paper provides a useful complement to other studies of immigrant outcomes that often focus on employment, income or health. Four years after landing, about three-quarters of LSIC respondents said they were satisfied or very satisfied with their life in Canada, and a comparable proportion said their expectations of life in Canada had been met or exceeded. Nearly 9 out of 10 said that, if given the chance, they would make the same decision again to come to Canada. A broad range of demographic, social and economic characteristics are associated with subjective assessments. Positive assessments of life in Canada are less prevalent among individuals in their thirties and forties, and university graduates and principal applicants in the skilled worker admission category, than they are among other groups. While assessments of life in Canada are correlated with economic factors such as personal income, they are also correlated with social factors such as relationships with neighbours and perceptions of discrimination.

    Release date: 2010-02-18

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X200910913236
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This article examines the relationship between health and work. Poor mental and physical health were found to decrease the probability of being employed, particularly among men. For women, mental health problems were also associated with working fewer hours.

    Release date: 2009-12-17

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X200911013238
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Although it has received some attention in the Canadian literature, the issue of work life balance of older workers remains largely understudied. This article addresses that gap using data from the 2005 General Social Survey. Overall, 14% of Canadian workers age 55 and over reported being dissatisfied with their work life balance in 2005. The sources of conflict most frequently cited were too much time on the job and too little time for the family. Work life balance dissatisfaction was associated with having a disability, providing elder care, working long hours, occupying a managerial position and being a woman. At the same time, having an employed partner, being self-employed and enjoying one's job reduced the probability of work life conflict. When the self-selection of older individuals out of employment was taken into account, the risk of work life conflict did not vary with age.

    Release date: 2009-12-17
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  • Articles and reports: 89-653-X2019004
    Description:

    This paper uses the 2017 Aboriginal Peoples Survey to assess the employment characteristics of First Nations men and women, including occupation, industry and full-time/part-time employment. A number of other outcomes, influenced by these characteristics, are further explored, such as job satisfaction, skills, health, presence of disability, and measures of economic well-being such as food security.

    Release date: 2019-06-13

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2014357
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    An emerging area of subjective well-being (SWB) research is centered on the differences in the levels of SWB both across countries and among geographic regions within a country. The consideration of geographic differences would extend our knowledge about the determinants of SWB from "internal" factors of personality traits and individuals' socio-demographic characteristics to "external factors" embedded in individuals' environments. An issue with important theoretical and policy implications is whether the income of others in the same geographic area is associated with individuals' SWB. The association could be positive if people benefit from the improved resources, amenities, and social capital in high-income areas. The association could also be negative if people tend to emulate the lifestyles of their more affluent neighbours. Related empirical studies so far have not come to a consensus on this question.

    The present study attempts to contribute to this issue in two significant ways. First, this study examines whether the effect of the average income in a geographic area (locality income) on SWB is sensitive to the scale of geographic units. With a very large sample of survey respondents nested within three hierarchical levels of geographic areas, this study provides reliable estimates of the association of SWB with average incomes in immediate neighbourhoods (defined as "census dissemination areas"), local communities ("census tracts"), and municipalities ("census subdivisions"). Second, this study examines how the choice of control variables influences the estimated effect of locality income. By considering the effects of individual demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, self-evaluated general health, and area-level attributes in a sequential manner, it is possible to discuss the likely mechanisms through which locality income is related to individuals' SWB.

    Release date: 2014-02-20

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2010322
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    In this paper, the Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Canada (LSIC) is used to examine how immigrants in the 2000-2001 landing cohort subjectively assess their life in Canada. The paper provides a useful complement to other studies of immigrant outcomes that often focus on employment, income or health. Four years after landing, about three-quarters of LSIC respondents said they were satisfied or very satisfied with their life in Canada, and a comparable proportion said their expectations of life in Canada had been met or exceeded. Nearly 9 out of 10 said that, if given the chance, they would make the same decision again to come to Canada. A broad range of demographic, social and economic characteristics are associated with subjective assessments. Positive assessments of life in Canada are less prevalent among individuals in their thirties and forties, and university graduates and principal applicants in the skilled worker admission category, than they are among other groups. While assessments of life in Canada are correlated with economic factors such as personal income, they are also correlated with social factors such as relationships with neighbours and perceptions of discrimination.

    Release date: 2010-02-18

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X200910913236
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This article examines the relationship between health and work. Poor mental and physical health were found to decrease the probability of being employed, particularly among men. For women, mental health problems were also associated with working fewer hours.

    Release date: 2009-12-17

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X200911013238
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Although it has received some attention in the Canadian literature, the issue of work life balance of older workers remains largely understudied. This article addresses that gap using data from the 2005 General Social Survey. Overall, 14% of Canadian workers age 55 and over reported being dissatisfied with their work life balance in 2005. The sources of conflict most frequently cited were too much time on the job and too little time for the family. Work life balance dissatisfaction was associated with having a disability, providing elder care, working long hours, occupying a managerial position and being a woman. At the same time, having an employed partner, being self-employed and enjoying one's job reduced the probability of work life conflict. When the self-selection of older individuals out of employment was taken into account, the risk of work life conflict did not vary with age.

    Release date: 2009-12-17
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