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    • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2005253
      Geography: Census metropolitan area

      This article summarizes findings from the research paper entitled Are immigrants buying to get in? The role of ethnic clustering on the homeownership propensities of 12 Toronto immigrant groups, 1996-2001. Spatial assimilation theory is a model of status attainment that links the spatial and social positions of minority group members (Massey and Denton 1985). If applied to immigrants, the model would suggest that immigrants would first cluster in typically poor neighbourhoods with high concentrations of co-ethnics, but that ethnic concentration should be temporary and of declining utility. Once an immigrant family's socioeconomic status improves, they should merge into the residential 'mainstream' by moving to a better, and typically less segregated, neighbourhood (Massey and Denton 1985). Further, although housing tenure is not an explicit dimension of spatial assimilation theory, given the well-established relationship between income, human capital and homeownership (Balakrishnan and Wu 1992; Laryea 1999), and the importance of homeownership as an indicator of well-being and residential assimilation (Myers and Lee 1998), part of an immigrant family's socioeconomic ascent should be a shift from tenant to homeowner (Alba and Logan 1992). Spatial assimilation theory would further predict that same-group concentration should be inversely related to homeownership since ethnic enclaves are typically conceived of as poor rental zones (Fong and Gulia 1999; Myles and Hou 2004).

      Recent research (Alba and Nee 2003; Logan, Alba, and Zhang 2002), however, finds that some immigrant groups may be choosing against spatial assimilation to form more durable 'ethnic communities' (Logan, Alba, and Zhang 2002), giving rise to a positive and growing 'enclave effect' on homeownership (Borjas 2002). In this paper, an enclave effect is evaluated as an explanation for the 1996-2001 homeownership patterns of Toronto's 12 largest recent immigrant groups. Using longitudinally-consistent and temporally-antecedent 1996 neighbourhood ethnic composition data this paper aims to determine if immigrants buy homes outside their enclaves or prefer an owner-occupied neighbourhood of same-group members. To this end, the paper discusses the potential benefits of living and buying in an enclave; it develops a predictive framework for determining which groups might benefit from owner-occupied ethnic communities; it also examines the issue of 'neighbourhood disequilibrium' and evaluates the enclave effect on homeownership using a sample of recent (1996-2001) movers, their 1996 neighbourhood ethnic characteristics, and bivariate probit models with sample selection corrections (Van de Ven and Van Praag 1981).

      Release date: 2005-05-26

    • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2005238
      Geography: Canada, Census metropolitan area

      In the past, working-age immigrant families in Canada's large urban centres had higher homeownership rates than the Canadian-born. Over the past twenty years however, this advantage has reversed, due jointly to a drop in immigrant rates and a rise in the popularity of homeownership among the Canadian-born. This paper assesses the efficacy of standard consumer choice models, which include indicators for age, income, education, family type, plus several immigrant characteristics, to explain these changes. The main findings are that the standard model almost completely explains the immigrant homeownership advantage in 1981, as well as the rise over time among the Canadian-born, but even after accounting for the well-known decline in immigrant economic fortunes, only about one-third of the 1981-2001 immigrant change in homeownership rates is explained. The implications of this inability are discussed and several suggestions for further research are made.

      Release date: 2005-02-03

    • Articles and reports: 11F0024M20040007442
      Geography: Census metropolitan area

      This study examines the expansion of visible minority neighbourhoods in Canada's three largest metropolitan areas from 1981 to 2001.

      Release date: 2004-11-25

    • Articles and reports: 85-561-M2004004
      Geography: Census metropolitan area

      This research paper explores the spatial distribution of crime and various social, economic and physical neighbourhood characteristics in Winnipeg. Analysis is based on police-reported crime data from the 2001 Incident-based Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, the 2001 Census of Population, and City of Winnipeg land-use data.

      Release date: 2004-09-16

    • Articles and reports: 85-002-X20040058404
      Geography: Canada, Province or territory, Census metropolitan area

      This report provides an overview of residential, business and 'other' breaking and entering (B&E) offences in Canada, including trends in police-reported B&Es at the national, provincial/territorial and census metropolitan area levels. In addition, the characteristics of all B&E incidents, victims and accused will be discussed as well as residential breaking and entering offences with the intent or threat of violence (home invasion). Finally, court responses to these types of incidents will be presented.

      Release date: 2004-07-08

    • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2004221
      Geography: Census metropolitan area

      This study examines the expansion of visible minority neighbourhoods in Canada's three largest metropolitan areas from 1981 to 2001.

      Release date: 2004-07-02

    • Journals and periodicals: 51-502-X
      Geography: Census metropolitan area

      Aviation passenger traffic in Calgary and Edmonton were roughly equal in 1963 but the Calgary market has grown much larger than that of Edmonton. Reasons for growth in these two aviation markets often returned to the debate over a divided aviation market as the result of two airports (Edmonton) versus one at their major competitor (Calgary). It was often suggested that if flights could be consolidated into one airport, «market share» would cease to be lost to the competing airport.

      Major socio-economic variables used in airport passenger forecasting are examined to see if they help to explain the different growth patterns. Population does not appear to explain the differences. Income may be one explanatory factor, with the larger concentration of higher incomes in Calgary. The immigrant population of Calgary has grown faster in the last decade and net migration to Calgary from elsewhere in Canada has been higher--both could stimulate travel. With respect to economic activity stimulating aviation, Calgary has recently led Edmonton in the value of building permits, full-time employment and head office employment. While the socio-economic variables have favoured Calgary, especially in recent years, the decline of Edmonton's passenger aviation traffic, relative to Calgary, has slowed. This has occurred after the moving of most commercial aviation passenger flights from Edmonton City Centre airport to Edmonton International airport. This may support the position that Edmonton was losing aviation passenger traffic to Calgary before the consolidation of commercial aviation flights at Edmonton international airport.

      Release date: 2004-05-12

    • Articles and reports: 11-008-X20030046803
      Geography: Census metropolitan area

      This article examines the expansion of visible minority neighbourhoods in Canada's three largest census metropolitan areas (CMAs) and explores how visible minority neighbourhoods were formed.

      Release date: 2004-03-09

    • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2004216
      Geography: Census metropolitan area

      This study uses longitudinal tax data to explore several undocumented aspects regarding the duration of time spent residing in low-income neighbourhoods (residential 'spells'). Although the length of new spells is generally substantial (at least compared with low-income spells), there is quite a lot of variation in this regard. Low-income neighbourhood spells exhibit negative duration dependence, implying that the longer people live in low-income neighbourhoods, the less likely they are to leave.

      Length of spell varies substantially by age and city of residence and, to a lesser extent, by family income and family type. Specifically, older individuals remain in low-income neighbourhoods for longer periods of time than younger individuals, as do residents of Toronto and Vancouver (in relation to Montréal). Individuals in low-income families have longer spell lengths than those in higher income families and, among these low-income families, lone-parents and couples with children generally spend more time living in low-income neighbourhoods than childless couples and unattached individuals.

      Release date: 2004-01-21

    • Articles and reports: 11-010-X20030116683
      Geography: Province or territory, Census metropolitan area

      This paper examines the number of hours worked as a result of the August 2003 power outage in Ontario and Gatineau, Quebec.

      Release date: 2003-11-20
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    • Geographic files and documentation: 16-510-X2017001
      Geography: Census metropolitan area

      This product contains restored 1971 census enumeration area boundaries for Canada's largest cities. It provides the public with a historical spatial data set to be used for reference, mapping, spatial and time series analysis. The restored boundaries include population and dwelling statistics.

      Release date: 2017-05-24
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