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  • Articles and reports: 88F0017M2001012
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This report covers the use and planned use of 26 advanced manufacturing technologies (AMTs) at the establishment level. Additional information on skill requirements, technology development and implementation practices, results of technology adoption, barriers to adoption and firms' research and development activities was obtained from the 1998 Survey of Advanced Technologies in Canadian Manufacturing.

    Release date: 2001-11-29

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2001169
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This paper documents the changing geography of the Canadian manufacturing sector over a twenty-two year period (1976-1997). It does so by looking at the shifts in employment, as well as other measures of industrial change, across different levels of the rural/urban hierarchy - central cities, adjacent suburbs, medium and small cities, and rural areas.

    The analysis demonstrates that the most dramatic shifts in manufacturing employment were from the central cities of large metropolitan regions to their suburbs. Paralleling trends in the United States, rural regions of Canada have increased their share of manufacturing employment. Rising rural employment shares were due to declining employment shares of small cities and, to lesser degree, large urban regions. Increasing rural employment was particularly prominent in Quebec, where employment shifted away from the Montreal region. By way of contrast, Ontario's rural regions only maintained their share of employment and the Toronto region increased its share of provincial employment over the period. The changing fortunes of rural and urban areas was not the result of across-the-board shifts in manufacturing employment, but was the net outcome of differing locational patterns across industries.

    Change across the rural/urban hierarchy is also measured in terms of wage and productivity levels, diversity, and volatility. In contrast to the United States, wages and productivity in Canada do not consistently decline moving down the rural/urban hierarchy from the largest cities to the most rural parts of the country. Only after controlling for the types of manufacturing industries found in rural and urban regions is it apparent that wages and productivity decline with the size of place. The analysis also demonstrates that over time most rural and urban regions are diversifying across a wider variety of manufacturing industries and that shifts in employment shares across industries - a measure of economic instability - has for some rural/urban classifications increased modestly.

    Release date: 2001-11-23

  • Articles and reports: 88-003-X20010035966
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Two-thirds of advanced technology-using manufacturing establishments experienced some type of skill shortage in the latter part of the 1990s. Shortages were greatest for machine operators, industrial engineers and machinists, with about a quarter of plant managers reporting a shortage in each of these areas. Production managers and computer professionals were next, with one-in-five plants indicating a shortage.

    Release date: 2001-10-31

  • Articles and reports: 21-004-X20010095953
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Food manufacturers, wholesalers and retailers have managed to sustain reasonable returns during the 1990s despite the challenges posed by the advent of free trade agreements and the changing eating habits of the population. This article looks at the returns on investment for businesses operating in the domestic food sector during the 1990s.

    Release date: 2001-10-12

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2001174
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This paper investigates the evolution of the industrial structure in the Canadian manufacturing sector and its relationship to technological change by examining the take-up of advanced technologies and how it is related to the stochastic growth process in the plant population. Its framework is grounded in the view that growth is a stochastic process that involves learning. Experimentation with new technologies rewards some firms with superior growth and profitability. Examining how growth is associated with the choice of different technology strategies indicates which of these is being rewarded.

    The evolution of this process is studied by examining the relationship between the uptake of advanced technologies and the performance of plants in the manufacturing sector. This is done by using cross-sectional data on advanced technology use and by combining it with longitudinal panel data on plant performance. In particular, the paper examines the relationship between the use of information and communications technology (ICT) and the growth in a plant's market share and its relative productivity.

    The study finds that a considerable amount of market share is transferred from declining firms to growing firms over a decade. At the same time, the growers increase their productivity relative to the losers. Those technology users that were using communications technologies or that combined technologies from different classes increased their relative productivity the most. In turn, gains in relative productivity were accompanied by gains in market share. Other factors that were associated with gains in market share were the presence of R&D facilities and other innovative activities.

    Release date: 2001-10-03

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2001173
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Using survey data, this paper investigates problems that firms in the Canadian manufacturing sector face in their decision to adopt advanced technology. The data show that while the use of advanced technology is relatively important (users account for over 80% of all shipments), it is not widespread among firms (users represent only about one-third of all establishments). One explanation lies in the fact that while advanced technologies provide a wide range of benefits, firms also face a series of problems that impede them from adopting advanced technology. These impediments fall into five groups: cost-related, institution-related, labour-related, organization-related, and information-related.

    While it might be expected that impediments would be higher for non-users than users of technologies, the opposite occurs. We posit that the reason for this is that innovation involves a learning process. Innovators and technology users face problems that they have to solve and the more innovative firms have greater problems. We test this by examining the factors that are related to whether a firm reports that it faced impediments. Our multivariate analysis reveals that impediments are reported more frequently among technology users than non-users; and more frequently among innovating firms than non-innovating ones. We conclude that the information on impediments in technology and other related surveys (innovation) should not be interpreted as impenetrable barriers that prevent technology adoption. Rather, these surveys indicate areas where successful firms face and solve problems.

    Release date: 2001-09-21

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2001175
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This paper investigates the extent to which establishments in the Canadian manufacturing sector experience occupational skill shortages, and to the extent that they do, whether these shortages appear to act as impediments to advanced technology adoption. Plants adopting advanced technology report shortages, particularly when it comes to professionals, such as scientists and engineers, and to technical specialists. Whether these shortages pose labour-market problems depends very much on the solutions adapted by the establishments experiencing the shortages. This paper finds that labour shortages did not appear to block technology adoption since those establishments that reported shortages were also the most technologically advanced. Although they faced a greater need for skilled labour, they were able to solve their shortages.

    Release date: 2001-09-21

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2001165
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This paper investigates the extent to which customers/suppliers innovation networks are related to the size and pattern of inter-industry goods flows. It does so by devising a diversification index to measure the nature of inter-industry links that arise from the flow of goods and services from suppliers to customers. It then relates these diversification patterns to the importance of customer and supplier innovation networks.

    Input/output matrices are used to measure the extent of inter-industry links and the pattern of inter-industry goods flows. The importance of customer/supplier networks is derived from data coming from the 1993 Survey of Innovation and Advanced Technology.

    The study finds that the importance of supplier and of customer innovation networks is related to the structure of inter-industry trade flows. Where there are a small number of important backward inter-industry links, firms are more likely to make greater use of supplier partnerships. On the other hand, the importance of customer links increases when there is a large number of industry linkages downstream.

    Release date: 2001-05-04

  • Articles and reports: 88-003-X20010025754
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Findings from the Survey of innovation 1999 provide insights into the percent of innovative firms in manufacturing, why these firms innovate, their obstacles to innovation, and the impacts of innovation.

    Release date: 2001-05-02

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2001154
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This paper examines the ways that innovation status as opposed to technology use affects the training activities of manufacturing plants. It examines training that is introduced as a response to specific skill shortages versus training that is implemented in response to the introduction of advanced equipment.

    Advanced technology users are more likely to have workers in highly skilled occupations, to face greater shortages for these workers, and they are more likely to train workers in response to these shortages than are plants that do not use advanced technologies.

    The introduction of new techniques is also accompanied by differences in the incidence of training, with advanced technology users being more likely to introduce training programs than non-users. Here, innovation status within the group of technology users also affects the training decision. In particular, innovating and non-innovating technology users diverge with regards to the extent and nature of training that is undertaken in response to the introduction of new advanced equipment. Innovators are more likely to provide training for this purpose and to prefer on-the-job training to other forms. Non-innovators are less likely to offer training under these circumstances and when they do, it is more likely to be done in a classroom, either off-site or at the firm.

    These findings emphasize that training occurs for more than one reason. Shortages related to insufficient supply provide one rational. But it is not here that innovative firms stand out. Rather they appear to respond differentially to the introduction of new equipment by extensively implementing training that is highly firm-specific. This suggests that innovation requires new skills that are not so much occupation specific (though that is no doubt present) but general cognitive skills that come from operating in an innovative environment that involves improving the problem-solving capabilities of many in the workforce. These problem-solving capabilities occur in a learning-by-doing setting with hands on experience.

    Release date: 2001-04-04
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Analysis (11)

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  • Articles and reports: 88F0017M2001012
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This report covers the use and planned use of 26 advanced manufacturing technologies (AMTs) at the establishment level. Additional information on skill requirements, technology development and implementation practices, results of technology adoption, barriers to adoption and firms' research and development activities was obtained from the 1998 Survey of Advanced Technologies in Canadian Manufacturing.

    Release date: 2001-11-29

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2001169
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This paper documents the changing geography of the Canadian manufacturing sector over a twenty-two year period (1976-1997). It does so by looking at the shifts in employment, as well as other measures of industrial change, across different levels of the rural/urban hierarchy - central cities, adjacent suburbs, medium and small cities, and rural areas.

    The analysis demonstrates that the most dramatic shifts in manufacturing employment were from the central cities of large metropolitan regions to their suburbs. Paralleling trends in the United States, rural regions of Canada have increased their share of manufacturing employment. Rising rural employment shares were due to declining employment shares of small cities and, to lesser degree, large urban regions. Increasing rural employment was particularly prominent in Quebec, where employment shifted away from the Montreal region. By way of contrast, Ontario's rural regions only maintained their share of employment and the Toronto region increased its share of provincial employment over the period. The changing fortunes of rural and urban areas was not the result of across-the-board shifts in manufacturing employment, but was the net outcome of differing locational patterns across industries.

    Change across the rural/urban hierarchy is also measured in terms of wage and productivity levels, diversity, and volatility. In contrast to the United States, wages and productivity in Canada do not consistently decline moving down the rural/urban hierarchy from the largest cities to the most rural parts of the country. Only after controlling for the types of manufacturing industries found in rural and urban regions is it apparent that wages and productivity decline with the size of place. The analysis also demonstrates that over time most rural and urban regions are diversifying across a wider variety of manufacturing industries and that shifts in employment shares across industries - a measure of economic instability - has for some rural/urban classifications increased modestly.

    Release date: 2001-11-23

  • Articles and reports: 88-003-X20010035966
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Two-thirds of advanced technology-using manufacturing establishments experienced some type of skill shortage in the latter part of the 1990s. Shortages were greatest for machine operators, industrial engineers and machinists, with about a quarter of plant managers reporting a shortage in each of these areas. Production managers and computer professionals were next, with one-in-five plants indicating a shortage.

    Release date: 2001-10-31

  • Articles and reports: 21-004-X20010095953
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Food manufacturers, wholesalers and retailers have managed to sustain reasonable returns during the 1990s despite the challenges posed by the advent of free trade agreements and the changing eating habits of the population. This article looks at the returns on investment for businesses operating in the domestic food sector during the 1990s.

    Release date: 2001-10-12

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2001174
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This paper investigates the evolution of the industrial structure in the Canadian manufacturing sector and its relationship to technological change by examining the take-up of advanced technologies and how it is related to the stochastic growth process in the plant population. Its framework is grounded in the view that growth is a stochastic process that involves learning. Experimentation with new technologies rewards some firms with superior growth and profitability. Examining how growth is associated with the choice of different technology strategies indicates which of these is being rewarded.

    The evolution of this process is studied by examining the relationship between the uptake of advanced technologies and the performance of plants in the manufacturing sector. This is done by using cross-sectional data on advanced technology use and by combining it with longitudinal panel data on plant performance. In particular, the paper examines the relationship between the use of information and communications technology (ICT) and the growth in a plant's market share and its relative productivity.

    The study finds that a considerable amount of market share is transferred from declining firms to growing firms over a decade. At the same time, the growers increase their productivity relative to the losers. Those technology users that were using communications technologies or that combined technologies from different classes increased their relative productivity the most. In turn, gains in relative productivity were accompanied by gains in market share. Other factors that were associated with gains in market share were the presence of R&D facilities and other innovative activities.

    Release date: 2001-10-03

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2001173
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Using survey data, this paper investigates problems that firms in the Canadian manufacturing sector face in their decision to adopt advanced technology. The data show that while the use of advanced technology is relatively important (users account for over 80% of all shipments), it is not widespread among firms (users represent only about one-third of all establishments). One explanation lies in the fact that while advanced technologies provide a wide range of benefits, firms also face a series of problems that impede them from adopting advanced technology. These impediments fall into five groups: cost-related, institution-related, labour-related, organization-related, and information-related.

    While it might be expected that impediments would be higher for non-users than users of technologies, the opposite occurs. We posit that the reason for this is that innovation involves a learning process. Innovators and technology users face problems that they have to solve and the more innovative firms have greater problems. We test this by examining the factors that are related to whether a firm reports that it faced impediments. Our multivariate analysis reveals that impediments are reported more frequently among technology users than non-users; and more frequently among innovating firms than non-innovating ones. We conclude that the information on impediments in technology and other related surveys (innovation) should not be interpreted as impenetrable barriers that prevent technology adoption. Rather, these surveys indicate areas where successful firms face and solve problems.

    Release date: 2001-09-21

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2001175
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This paper investigates the extent to which establishments in the Canadian manufacturing sector experience occupational skill shortages, and to the extent that they do, whether these shortages appear to act as impediments to advanced technology adoption. Plants adopting advanced technology report shortages, particularly when it comes to professionals, such as scientists and engineers, and to technical specialists. Whether these shortages pose labour-market problems depends very much on the solutions adapted by the establishments experiencing the shortages. This paper finds that labour shortages did not appear to block technology adoption since those establishments that reported shortages were also the most technologically advanced. Although they faced a greater need for skilled labour, they were able to solve their shortages.

    Release date: 2001-09-21

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2001165
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This paper investigates the extent to which customers/suppliers innovation networks are related to the size and pattern of inter-industry goods flows. It does so by devising a diversification index to measure the nature of inter-industry links that arise from the flow of goods and services from suppliers to customers. It then relates these diversification patterns to the importance of customer and supplier innovation networks.

    Input/output matrices are used to measure the extent of inter-industry links and the pattern of inter-industry goods flows. The importance of customer/supplier networks is derived from data coming from the 1993 Survey of Innovation and Advanced Technology.

    The study finds that the importance of supplier and of customer innovation networks is related to the structure of inter-industry trade flows. Where there are a small number of important backward inter-industry links, firms are more likely to make greater use of supplier partnerships. On the other hand, the importance of customer links increases when there is a large number of industry linkages downstream.

    Release date: 2001-05-04

  • Articles and reports: 88-003-X20010025754
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Findings from the Survey of innovation 1999 provide insights into the percent of innovative firms in manufacturing, why these firms innovate, their obstacles to innovation, and the impacts of innovation.

    Release date: 2001-05-02

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2001154
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This paper examines the ways that innovation status as opposed to technology use affects the training activities of manufacturing plants. It examines training that is introduced as a response to specific skill shortages versus training that is implemented in response to the introduction of advanced equipment.

    Advanced technology users are more likely to have workers in highly skilled occupations, to face greater shortages for these workers, and they are more likely to train workers in response to these shortages than are plants that do not use advanced technologies.

    The introduction of new techniques is also accompanied by differences in the incidence of training, with advanced technology users being more likely to introduce training programs than non-users. Here, innovation status within the group of technology users also affects the training decision. In particular, innovating and non-innovating technology users diverge with regards to the extent and nature of training that is undertaken in response to the introduction of new advanced equipment. Innovators are more likely to provide training for this purpose and to prefer on-the-job training to other forms. Non-innovators are less likely to offer training under these circumstances and when they do, it is more likely to be done in a classroom, either off-site or at the firm.

    These findings emphasize that training occurs for more than one reason. Shortages related to insufficient supply provide one rational. But it is not here that innovative firms stand out. Rather they appear to respond differentially to the introduction of new equipment by extensively implementing training that is highly firm-specific. This suggests that innovation requires new skills that are not so much occupation specific (though that is no doubt present) but general cognitive skills that come from operating in an innovative environment that involves improving the problem-solving capabilities of many in the workforce. These problem-solving capabilities occur in a learning-by-doing setting with hands on experience.

    Release date: 2001-04-04
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