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    • Articles and reports: 75-001-X200810913216
      Geography: Canada
      Description:

      In 2007, the proportion of employed people in Canada was at its highest level in at least three decades, while the national unemployment rate sank to a 33-year low of 5.8%. However, manufacturing employment in Canada, as in the United States, has been on a downward trend. Between 2002 and 2007 employment rates increased the most in the highest-paying industries and occupations. On the other hand, some job losses were experienced by machine operators and assembly workers. Retail trade had been the largest creator of new jobs but was surpassed in 2007 by construction, and health care and social assistance.

      Release date: 2008-12-18

    • Articles and reports: 75-001-X200811013217
      Geography: Canada
      Description:

      Education and training continue to be important in the labour market. To many, this implies a university degree. But society also needs tradesworkers to perform many vital tasks -- build houses, run the electrical lines, fix plumbing and maintain cars to name just a few. Many businesses are reporting difficulties finding skilled tradespersons and governments are responding with policies to stimulate employment in the trades. Employment trends in selected trades over the past 20 years are examined, along with the socio-economic traits of the workers and the characteristics of their jobs.

      Release date: 2008-12-18

    • Articles and reports: 75-001-X200811013218
      Geography: Canada
      Description:

      Interprovincial migration is a key component of demographic change in Canada. It also influences the supply of public services and tax revenues, the performance and efficiency of labour markets and productivity. As one would expect, people generally move from provinces with slack local labour markets to provinces with stronger labour markets. Improvements in labour market conditions and labour market outcomes tend to reduce out-migration rates. Migrants also record better earnings growth than non-migrants, especially when they are young.

      Release date: 2008-12-18

    • 4. Bridge employment Archived
      Articles and reports: 75-001-X200811113219
      Geography: Canada
      Description:

      Retirement is a process rather than a discrete event. Many older workers who start receiving a pension stay in the labour market in some capacity for roughly two to three years before they completely cease employment. And many who quit paid work at one point subsequently return to the labour market, especially in the first year after leaving their career job. For a substantial proportion of older workers, this 'bridge employment appears to be a choice rather than a necessity.

      Release date: 2008-12-18

    • 5. Rural commuting Archived
      Articles and reports: 75-001-X200811113220
      Geography: Canada
      Description:

      Commuting is, to a large extent, an urban phenomenon. Close to 80% of commuting takes place between municipalities within larger urban centres. But commuting patterns are becoming increasingly complex and rural commuting is more complex than commonly believed. For persons in rural and small-town areas, rural-to-rural commuting is as large as rural-to-urban commuting. Moreover, rural jobs are more than twice as reliant on in-commuting rural workers as they are on in-commuting urban workers.

      Release date: 2008-12-18

    • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2008311
      Geography: Canada
      Description:

      This paper examines the variability of workers' earnings in Canada over the 1982-to-2000 period by a graphical descriptive approach using the Longitudinal Administrative Data base file. Following Gottschalk and Moffitt (1994), we decompose the total variance of workers' earnings into a 'permanent' or long-run component between workers and a 'transitory' or year-to-year earnings instability component over time for given workers. The decomposition is applied to a five-year moving window. Several results are found. First, the general rise in total earnings variance over the period reflects quite different patterns of change for its separate components. Long-run earnings inequality has generally increased over the period, while year-to-year earnings instability has pretty steadily decreased. Changes in the total earnings variability have been driven primarily by changes in long-run earnings inequality. Second, the patterns of change in the two variance components showed substantial differences between men and women. Since the early 1990s, long-run earnings inequality continued to rise for men, but it markedly decreased for women. Since the late 1980s, earnings instability fell quite steadily for women, but it showed a more cyclical pattern for men. Third, the patterns across ages of the two variance components are almost opposite. Long-run earnings inequality generally rises with age, so it is markedly highest among older-age workers. Earnings instability, in contrast, generally declines with age, so it is markedly highest among entry-age workers.

      Release date: 2008-12-18

    • Articles and reports: 91F0015M2008009
      Geography: Canada
      Description:

      In Canada, there has been growing discussion over the aging of the population and other socio-demographic trends which affect the availability of the informal support network of the elderly population. Noting the lower fertility rates of baby boomers, the increased participation of women in the labour force and changing family structure in terms of increased divorce and reconstituted families, assumptions of continued high level assistance from informal support networks - family and friends - are often criticized.

      The main objective of this research is to project the future availability of informal support network to meet the need for assistance in performing everyday activities among the disabled elderly population for the period 2001 to 2031. The research examined both sides - supply and demand - of the projected increases in need for assistance for disabled older persons. Future trends are analyzed in terms of demand for support, (that is, changes in the rates of disability among the elderly population), and supply of informal support, (which is largely related to the extent and composition of the family network). Data from two national surveys, the 1996 National Population Health Survey (NPHS) and the 1996 General Social Survey (GSS), are used to identify factors associated with disability and sources of assistance among the elderly population. These results were entered into Statistics Canada's LifePaths microsimulation model to project the use of informal and formal networks in the future. The model also incorporates three disability scenarios to test the sensitivity of the projections when different assumptions are considered. The implications of these trends on the future need for chronic home care services are discussed.

      The results show that for the period 2001 to 2031, the average annual growth rate of the number of disabled elderly needing assistance could be about 2.5%. However, the sensitivity analysis shows that an improvement in the health of the population could reduce in a non negligible way this growth rate.

      The results also show that, all things being equal, a greater proportion of elderly persons living with a spouse would relieve some of the pressure on the formal network. This positive effect could be dampened in part when joint survivorship is also meaning joint disability.

      Release date: 2008-12-18

    • Articles and reports: 82-003-X200800410746
      Geography: Canada
      Description:

      This article investigates associations that may underlie the blurred or positive gradient between socio-economic status (SES) and overweight, and also gender differences, by assessing the distribution of risk factors for overweight across SES groups.

      Release date: 2008-12-17

    • Articles and reports: 82-003-X200800410747
      Geography: Canada
      Description:

      A selective approach may be used in an ecological study where the aim is to choose a subset of units of analysis (UAs) and produce interpretations about a population of interest (PI) based solely on those UAs. The results for the PI will be reliable if that population is concentrated in the selected UAs and rare in other UAs. This article presents a graphical tool that helps determine whether these conditions are satisfied.

      Release date: 2008-12-17

    • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2008319
      Geography: Canada
      Description:

      The past 25 years has seen a more or less continuous deterioration in the economic outcomes for immigrants entering Canada. However, economic outcomes for second-generation Canadians (children of immigrants) are more positive, and in spite of the economic difficulties, after four years in Canada most immigrants entering in 2000 remained positive regarding their immigration decision, citing the freedom, safety, rights, security and prospects for the future as the aspects they appreciate most in Canada. This paper reviews what we know about the economic deterioration, and the possible reasons behind it, in particular based on the research conducted at Statistics Canada. It also outlines the data development undertaken by Statistics Canada and its policy department partners to support increased research of this topic. From 2002 to 2008, Statistics Canada released 64 research articles on the above topics, and others related to immigration. The research suggests that through the 1980s and 1990s three factors were associated with the deterioration in economic outcomes: (1) the changing mix of source regions and related issues such as language and school quality, (2) declining returns to foreign experience, and (3) the deterioration in economic outcomes for all new labour market entrants, of which immigrants are a special case. After 2000, the reasons appear to be different, and are associated more with the dramatic increase in the number of engineers and information technology (IT) workers entering Canada, and the IT economic downturn. Data also suggest that, by and large, Canadians continue to see immigration as an important part of the development of Canada and that they continue to support it. The paper reviews Statistics Canada research that indicates that economic outcomes for most second-generation Canadians remain very positive. Finally, there is a discussion of the interaction between immigration and social cohesion in Canada, and possible reasons as to why we have not seen the discontent with immigration policy in Canada that has been observed in some European countries.

      Release date: 2008-12-16
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    Analysis (197)

    Analysis (197) (0 to 10 of 197 results)

    • Articles and reports: 75-001-X200810913216
      Geography: Canada
      Description:

      In 2007, the proportion of employed people in Canada was at its highest level in at least three decades, while the national unemployment rate sank to a 33-year low of 5.8%. However, manufacturing employment in Canada, as in the United States, has been on a downward trend. Between 2002 and 2007 employment rates increased the most in the highest-paying industries and occupations. On the other hand, some job losses were experienced by machine operators and assembly workers. Retail trade had been the largest creator of new jobs but was surpassed in 2007 by construction, and health care and social assistance.

      Release date: 2008-12-18

    • Articles and reports: 75-001-X200811013217
      Geography: Canada
      Description:

      Education and training continue to be important in the labour market. To many, this implies a university degree. But society also needs tradesworkers to perform many vital tasks -- build houses, run the electrical lines, fix plumbing and maintain cars to name just a few. Many businesses are reporting difficulties finding skilled tradespersons and governments are responding with policies to stimulate employment in the trades. Employment trends in selected trades over the past 20 years are examined, along with the socio-economic traits of the workers and the characteristics of their jobs.

      Release date: 2008-12-18

    • Articles and reports: 75-001-X200811013218
      Geography: Canada
      Description:

      Interprovincial migration is a key component of demographic change in Canada. It also influences the supply of public services and tax revenues, the performance and efficiency of labour markets and productivity. As one would expect, people generally move from provinces with slack local labour markets to provinces with stronger labour markets. Improvements in labour market conditions and labour market outcomes tend to reduce out-migration rates. Migrants also record better earnings growth than non-migrants, especially when they are young.

      Release date: 2008-12-18

    • 4. Bridge employment Archived
      Articles and reports: 75-001-X200811113219
      Geography: Canada
      Description:

      Retirement is a process rather than a discrete event. Many older workers who start receiving a pension stay in the labour market in some capacity for roughly two to three years before they completely cease employment. And many who quit paid work at one point subsequently return to the labour market, especially in the first year after leaving their career job. For a substantial proportion of older workers, this 'bridge employment appears to be a choice rather than a necessity.

      Release date: 2008-12-18

    • 5. Rural commuting Archived
      Articles and reports: 75-001-X200811113220
      Geography: Canada
      Description:

      Commuting is, to a large extent, an urban phenomenon. Close to 80% of commuting takes place between municipalities within larger urban centres. But commuting patterns are becoming increasingly complex and rural commuting is more complex than commonly believed. For persons in rural and small-town areas, rural-to-rural commuting is as large as rural-to-urban commuting. Moreover, rural jobs are more than twice as reliant on in-commuting rural workers as they are on in-commuting urban workers.

      Release date: 2008-12-18

    • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2008311
      Geography: Canada
      Description:

      This paper examines the variability of workers' earnings in Canada over the 1982-to-2000 period by a graphical descriptive approach using the Longitudinal Administrative Data base file. Following Gottschalk and Moffitt (1994), we decompose the total variance of workers' earnings into a 'permanent' or long-run component between workers and a 'transitory' or year-to-year earnings instability component over time for given workers. The decomposition is applied to a five-year moving window. Several results are found. First, the general rise in total earnings variance over the period reflects quite different patterns of change for its separate components. Long-run earnings inequality has generally increased over the period, while year-to-year earnings instability has pretty steadily decreased. Changes in the total earnings variability have been driven primarily by changes in long-run earnings inequality. Second, the patterns of change in the two variance components showed substantial differences between men and women. Since the early 1990s, long-run earnings inequality continued to rise for men, but it markedly decreased for women. Since the late 1980s, earnings instability fell quite steadily for women, but it showed a more cyclical pattern for men. Third, the patterns across ages of the two variance components are almost opposite. Long-run earnings inequality generally rises with age, so it is markedly highest among older-age workers. Earnings instability, in contrast, generally declines with age, so it is markedly highest among entry-age workers.

      Release date: 2008-12-18

    • Articles and reports: 91F0015M2008009
      Geography: Canada
      Description:

      In Canada, there has been growing discussion over the aging of the population and other socio-demographic trends which affect the availability of the informal support network of the elderly population. Noting the lower fertility rates of baby boomers, the increased participation of women in the labour force and changing family structure in terms of increased divorce and reconstituted families, assumptions of continued high level assistance from informal support networks - family and friends - are often criticized.

      The main objective of this research is to project the future availability of informal support network to meet the need for assistance in performing everyday activities among the disabled elderly population for the period 2001 to 2031. The research examined both sides - supply and demand - of the projected increases in need for assistance for disabled older persons. Future trends are analyzed in terms of demand for support, (that is, changes in the rates of disability among the elderly population), and supply of informal support, (which is largely related to the extent and composition of the family network). Data from two national surveys, the 1996 National Population Health Survey (NPHS) and the 1996 General Social Survey (GSS), are used to identify factors associated with disability and sources of assistance among the elderly population. These results were entered into Statistics Canada's LifePaths microsimulation model to project the use of informal and formal networks in the future. The model also incorporates three disability scenarios to test the sensitivity of the projections when different assumptions are considered. The implications of these trends on the future need for chronic home care services are discussed.

      The results show that for the period 2001 to 2031, the average annual growth rate of the number of disabled elderly needing assistance could be about 2.5%. However, the sensitivity analysis shows that an improvement in the health of the population could reduce in a non negligible way this growth rate.

      The results also show that, all things being equal, a greater proportion of elderly persons living with a spouse would relieve some of the pressure on the formal network. This positive effect could be dampened in part when joint survivorship is also meaning joint disability.

      Release date: 2008-12-18

    • Articles and reports: 82-003-X200800410746
      Geography: Canada
      Description:

      This article investigates associations that may underlie the blurred or positive gradient between socio-economic status (SES) and overweight, and also gender differences, by assessing the distribution of risk factors for overweight across SES groups.

      Release date: 2008-12-17

    • Articles and reports: 82-003-X200800410747
      Geography: Canada
      Description:

      A selective approach may be used in an ecological study where the aim is to choose a subset of units of analysis (UAs) and produce interpretations about a population of interest (PI) based solely on those UAs. The results for the PI will be reliable if that population is concentrated in the selected UAs and rare in other UAs. This article presents a graphical tool that helps determine whether these conditions are satisfied.

      Release date: 2008-12-17

    • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2008319
      Geography: Canada
      Description:

      The past 25 years has seen a more or less continuous deterioration in the economic outcomes for immigrants entering Canada. However, economic outcomes for second-generation Canadians (children of immigrants) are more positive, and in spite of the economic difficulties, after four years in Canada most immigrants entering in 2000 remained positive regarding their immigration decision, citing the freedom, safety, rights, security and prospects for the future as the aspects they appreciate most in Canada. This paper reviews what we know about the economic deterioration, and the possible reasons behind it, in particular based on the research conducted at Statistics Canada. It also outlines the data development undertaken by Statistics Canada and its policy department partners to support increased research of this topic. From 2002 to 2008, Statistics Canada released 64 research articles on the above topics, and others related to immigration. The research suggests that through the 1980s and 1990s three factors were associated with the deterioration in economic outcomes: (1) the changing mix of source regions and related issues such as language and school quality, (2) declining returns to foreign experience, and (3) the deterioration in economic outcomes for all new labour market entrants, of which immigrants are a special case. After 2000, the reasons appear to be different, and are associated more with the dramatic increase in the number of engineers and information technology (IT) workers entering Canada, and the IT economic downturn. Data also suggest that, by and large, Canadians continue to see immigration as an important part of the development of Canada and that they continue to support it. The paper reviews Statistics Canada research that indicates that economic outcomes for most second-generation Canadians remain very positive. Finally, there is a discussion of the interaction between immigration and social cohesion in Canada, and possible reasons as to why we have not seen the discontent with immigration policy in Canada that has been observed in some European countries.

      Release date: 2008-12-16
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