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  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2005238
    Geography: Canada, Census metropolitan area

    In the past, working-age immigrant families in Canada's large urban centres had higher homeownership rates than the Canadian-born. Over the past twenty years however, this advantage has reversed, due jointly to a drop in immigrant rates and a rise in the popularity of homeownership among the Canadian-born. This paper assesses the efficacy of standard consumer choice models, which include indicators for age, income, education, family type, plus several immigrant characteristics, to explain these changes. The main findings are that the standard model almost completely explains the immigrant homeownership advantage in 1981, as well as the rise over time among the Canadian-born, but even after accounting for the well-known decline in immigrant economic fortunes, only about one-third of the 1981-2001 immigrant change in homeownership rates is explained. The implications of this inability are discussed and several suggestions for further research are made.

    Release date: 2005-02-03

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2004229
    Geography: Canada

    This study examines trends in the internal migration of the Canadian-born and long-term immigrants into and out of Canada's three largest metropolitan areas.

    Release date: 2004-09-13

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X20040048042
    Geography: Canada

    Trends in rates of death involving firearms are examined from 1979 to 2002. Rates of firearms-related suicide, homicide, and unintentional death are reported over time and by province. Recent rates of gun-related death in Canada's four largest cities -Toronto, Montréal, Vancouver and Calgary -are compared.

    Release date: 2005-06-28

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2011333
    Geography: Canada

    The number of registered apprentices in Canada more than doubled between 1995 and 2007, yet successful completion of apprenticeship programs increased by only about one-third as much. Uncovering the factors related to low completion rates is a necessary first step to ensuring that today's skilled labour is replaced in the future. This study utilizes the 2007 National Apprenticeship Survey (NAS) to investigate the completion behaviour of individuals enrolled in apprenticeship programs. These behaviours include continuing, discontinuing (or quitting), and completing programs. The NAS contains detailed demographic information regarding respondents' backgrounds and the characteristics of apprenticeship programs. The results show that program completion is positively related to a variety of demographic characteristics, including being married and having completed at least a high school education prior to beginning an apprenticeship. Males and females have similar completion probabilities. Completion is negatively related to time in the apprenticeship program (beyond the normal program length) and the number of employers during training. Type of technical training and having a journeyperson always present enhance the probability of completion. The regional unemployment rate has little effect on whether an individual completes an apprenticeship program or not. There are also large provincial and trade group differences.

    This is a revised version of an earlier paper circulated under the same title (Laporte and Mueller 2010). We thank the Canadian Labour Market and Skills Researcher Network (CLSRN) and Human Resources and Skills Development Canada (HRSDC) for supporting this research. We would also like to thank an anonymous reviewer, Grant Schellenberg, and Pamela White for useful comments as well as participants at the January 2010 HRSDC-CLSRN Apprenticeship Workshop in Vancouver and many colleagues at Statistics Canada and HRSDC.

    Release date: 2011-03-28

  • Articles and reports: 11-621-M2007065
    Geography: Canada, Census metropolitan area

    This paper will update the analysis of what the retail trade patterns were for 2006 Christmas period. In addition, analysis is available for the first time for three of Canada's Census Metropolitan Areas (CMAs). Comparable December retail sales data for Toronto, Vancouver and Montréal will be analyzed against an 'average' of the January to November period. Comparisons will also be made against the month of December in previous years. Analysis will also include a decomposition of the growth of retail sales.

    Release date: 2007-12-06

  • Articles and reports: 91F0015M2007008
    Geography: Canada

    If low fertility, aging, demographic growth and ethnocultural diversity are phenomena that accurately describe Canada overall, the same patterns may not necessarily hold true for urban and rural areas. The rhythm and sources of demographic growth have often been significantly different from one area to the next, which would suggest that the situation across Canada stems from the aggregation of different demographies, which are variable between types of regions.

    The objective of this study is to examine demographic differences between urban and rural areas in Canada by analyzing communities along a gradient ranging from the largest metropolitan regions to the most rural areas. Applying a geographic structure to Census data from 1971 to 2001 that maintains constant borders over time, the authors analyze population growth across eight types of urban and rural regions; as well as the contribution of immigration, fertility and internal migration to growth differentials; and the consequences of these observed demographic differences in terms of aging and ethnocultural diversity.

    The study finds that growth is concentrated in the most metropolitan areas in the country and in the rural areas on which they have a strong influence, and diminished as the degree of rurality increases. Internal migration between the different types of areas has largely contributed to this differential growth: the most urbanized areas-with the exception of Montréal, Toronto and Vancouver-underwent significant migratory gains as well as strong growth. This was also the case with the rural regions that had a strong metropolitan influence. The most rural regions experienced a weak demographic growth, in some cases a decline, despite having higher fertility than other regions. The strong growth in the three largest urban areas in Canada-Montréal, Toronto and Vancouver-is largely attributed to the high numbers of international immigrants who decided to settle there. The concentration of newcomers in these regions helped increase the gap between these three areas and the rest of the country in terms of ethnocultural diversity.

    Release date: 2007-04-26

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2005255
    Geography: Canada

    This article summarizes findings from the research paper entitled: The Initial Destinations and Redistribution of Canada's Major Immigrant Groups: Changes over the Past Two Decades. In 1981, about 58% of immigrants who had come to Canada in the previous 10 years lived in Toronto, Vancouver, and Montréal; by 2001, this had increased to 74% (Statistics Canada 2003), triggering debate on the merits of a more 'balanced geographic distribution of immigrants' (Citizenship and Immigration Canada-CIC 2001). Policies aimed at directing immigrants away from major gateway cities in many western countries have focused on the choice of initial destination, and little effort has been made to affect subsequent mobility. But such policies will work only if other, non-gateway regions, can keep immigrants or maintain balanced in- and out-migration. To this end, this study examines how Canada's major immigrant groups arriving over the past two decades have altered their geographic concentration through time, comparing immigrants arriving in the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s, in the concentration levels of their initial destinations, and in their subsequent geographic dispersal. It pays attention to the dispersal pattern of groups whose initial settlements were influenced by government policies and questions the role of pre-existing immigrant communities in geographic distribution.

    Release date: 2005-06-29

  • Articles and reports: 89-613-M2005007
    Geography: Canada

    The report examined the location of jobs in 27 census metropolitan areas, paying particular attention to developments in Quebec, Montreal, Ottawa-Hull, Toronto, Winnipeg, Calgary, Edmonton and Vancouver. It also analysed the modes commuters used to travel to work, emphasising public transit and car (as driver or passenger) commute modes.

    While Canadian metropolitan areas continue to be characterized by a strong concentration of jobs in the downtown core, employment grew faster in the suburbs of Canada's largest metropolitan areas than in the city centres between 1996 and 2001. One characteristic of increasing employment in suburban locations is the shifting of manufacturing activities from the core of the city to the suburbs. Retail trade also shifted away from the central core towards more suburban locations. Relatively few workers employed outside the city centre commuted on public transit, rather, most drove or were a passenger in a car. This tendency to commute by car increased the farther the job was located from the city centre.

    Furthermore commute patterns have become more complex, with growth in suburb-to-suburb commutes outpacing traditional commute paths within the city centre, and between the city centre and suburbs. Commuters travelling from suburb to suburb were also much more likely to drive than take public transit.

    Despite the decentralization of jobs occurring in the metropolitan areas, public transit did not lose its share of commuters between 1996 and 2001. While more car traffic headed to jobs in the suburbs, a larger share of commuters heading for the city centre took public transit. This kept the total share of commuters who took public transit stable between 1996 and 2001.

    The report also found that jobs in the downtown core were higher skilled and higher paid, and that earnings increased faster for jobs in the city centre between 1996 and 2001.

    The report uses the 1996 and 2001 censuses of Canada.

    Release date: 2005-06-01

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2003204
    Geography: Canada, Census metropolitan area

    Using Census data from 1981, 1986, 1991 and 1996, this study examined the association between living in a visible minority enclave and immigrants' labour market outcomes in Canada's three largest cities. The results showed that the number of such enclaves, defined as census tracts with at least 30% of the population from a single visible minority group (Chinese, South Asian or Black), increased from 6 in 1981 to 142 in 1996, mostly in Toronto and Vancouver. The association between exposure to own-group neighbours and employment was at times negative, but generally not significant. Exposure to own-group neighbours and working in a segregated occupation was positively, but not significantly, associated. Little association existed between exposure and employment earnings. However, there were some important group differences. The associations between exposure to own-group neighbours and labour market outcomes were usually very weak among Chinese immigrants, but often negative and strong among Black immigrants.

    Release date: 2003-07-09

  • Articles and reports: 96F0030X2001011
    Geography: Canada

    The 2001 Census has made it possible, for the first time, to establish statistics on languages used at work. The analysis of these statistics aims to evaluate, for allophone immigrants in the labour market across the country, the use of English, French and non-official languages. Particular attention is paid to allophone immigrant workers and to anglophone and francophone workers in the province of Quebec, in order to establish whether English or French predominates on the job. The use of languages other than English or French by allophones in the metropolitan areas of Toronto, Montréal and Vancouver is also discussed. In addition, analysis will cover the use of French at work by francophones living outside Quebec. The use of French at work by persons employed in the area referred to as the "Communauté urbaine de Montréal" (i.e., the Montréal area) is compared with the use of French at home by persons residing in that same area.

    This series includes a number of comprehensive articles that supplement the day-of-release information launched through The Daily. These catalogued articles provide an analytical perspective on the 2001 Census release topics. The number and length of these articles vary for each census release and are based on the 21 census release topics disseminated over 8 major release dates.

    More focused articles were disseminated as major releases in The Dailyin the weeks following the official release of the data. Other more specialized articles were also announced in The Daily. The articles in the 2001 Census Analysis Series are available free of charge via the Internet.

    Release date: 2003-02-11
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