Table 7 
Labour force characteristics by census metropolitan area, three-month moving average, seasonally adjusted 

Labour force characteristics by census metropolitan area, three-month moving average, seasonally adjusted
  December
2023
January
2024
Standard error1 December 2023 to January 2024 January 2023 to January 2024 December 2023 to January 2024 January 2023 to January 2024
  thousands (except rates)thousands (except rates)thousands (except rates) change in thousands (except rates)change in thousands (except rates) % change% change
St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador              
Population 192.4 192.9 ... 0.5 6.3 0.3 3.4
Labour force 123.8 124.9 0.8 1.1 1.3 0.9 1.1
Employment 115.7 117.2 0.9 1.5 1.2 1.3 1.0
Unemployment 8.2 7.6 0.4 -0.6 0.0 -7.3 0.0
Participation rate 64.3 64.7 0.4 0.4 -1.5 ... ...
Unemployment rate 6.6 6.1 0.3 -0.5 0.0 ... ...
Employment rate 60.1 60.8 0.5 0.7 -1.4 ... ...
Halifax, Nova Scotia              
Population 417.0 418.7 ... 1.7 18.3 0.4 4.6
Labour force 283.7 287.1 1.5 3.4 13.9 1.2 5.1
Employment 269.4 272.2 1.5 2.8 11.6 1.0 4.5
Unemployment 14.3 14.9 0.8 0.6 2.3 4.2 18.3
Participation rate 68.0 68.6 0.4 0.6 0.4 ... ...
Unemployment rate 5.0 5.2 0.3 0.2 0.6 ... ...
Employment rate 64.6 65.0 0.4 0.4 -0.1 ... ...
Moncton, New Brunswick              
Population 147.0 147.6 ... 0.6 6.6 0.4 4.7
Labour force 95.7 96.2 0.9 0.5 1.6 0.5 1.7
Employment 89.9 91.2 0.9 1.3 1.5 1.4 1.7
Unemployment 5.7 5.0 0.4 -0.7 0.0 -12.3 0.0
Participation rate 65.1 65.2 0.7 0.1 -1.9 ... ...
Unemployment rate 6.0 5.2 0.4 -0.8 -0.1 ... ...
Employment rate 61.2 61.8 0.7 0.6 -1.8 ... ...
Saint John, New Brunswick               
Population 117.1 117.4 ... 0.3 3.2 0.3 2.8
Labour force 74.0 75.3 0.9 1.3 5.0 1.8 7.1
Employment 70.5 71.6 0.9 1.1 5.4 1.6 8.2
Unemployment 3.5 3.7 0.3 0.2 -0.5 5.7 -11.9
Participation rate 63.2 64.1 0.8 0.9 2.5 ... ...
Unemployment rate 4.7 4.9 0.5 0.2 -1.1 ... ...
Employment rate 60.2 61.0 0.8 0.8 3.0 ... ...
Saguenay, Quebec              
Population 136.6 136.8 ... 0.2 1.2 0.1 0.9
Labour force 77.6 78.7 1.1 1.1 3.3 1.4 4.4
Employment 75.2 76.4 1.1 1.2 4.4 1.6 6.1
Unemployment 2.4 2.3 0.3 -0.1 -1.1 -4.2 -32.4
Participation rate 56.8 57.5 0.8 0.7 1.9 ... ...
Unemployment rate 3.1 2.9 0.4 -0.2 -1.6 ... ...
Employment rate 55.1 55.8 0.8 0.7 2.7 ... ...
Québec, Quebec              
Population 704.9 705.7 ... 0.8 9.4 0.1 1.3
Labour force 479.2 479.2 3.4 0.0 25.5 0.0 5.6
Employment 466.1 465.8 3.4 -0.3 22.8 -0.1 5.1
Unemployment 13.1 13.4 1.1 0.3 2.7 2.3 25.2
Participation rate 68.0 67.9 0.5 -0.1 2.7 ... ...
Unemployment rate 2.7 2.8 0.2 0.1 0.4 ... ...
Employment rate 66.1 66.0 0.5 -0.1 2.4 ... ...
Sherbrooke, Quebec              
Population 196.1 196.5 ... 0.4 4.2 0.2 2.2
Labour force 121.1 122.9 1.3 1.8 5.2 1.5 4.4
Employment 115.3 116.7 1.3 1.4 3.1 1.2 2.7
Unemployment 5.8 6.2 0.4 0.4 2.2 6.9 55.0
Participation rate 61.8 62.5 0.7 0.7 1.3 ... ...
Unemployment rate 4.8 5.0 0.4 0.2 1.6 ... ...
Employment rate 58.8 59.4 0.7 0.6 0.3 ... ...
Trois-Rivières, Quebec               
Population 139.9 140.1 ... 0.2 1.8 0.1 1.3
Labour force 87.2 86.9 0.9 -0.3 6.8 -0.3 8.5
Employment 82.6 82.0 0.9 -0.6 4.5 -0.7 5.8
Unemployment 4.6 4.8 0.3 0.2 2.2 4.3 84.6
Participation rate 62.3 62.0 0.7 -0.3 4.1 ... ...
Unemployment rate 5.3 5.5 0.4 0.2 2.3 ... ...
Employment rate 59.0 58.5 0.7 -0.5 2.5 ... ...
Montréal, Quebec              
Population 3,784.6 3,794.9 ... 10.3 95.1 0.3 2.6
Labour force 2,565.4 2,549.8 9.0 -15.6 22.9 -0.6 0.9
Employment 2,412.7 2,400.8 9.3 -11.9 -10.8 -0.5 -0.4
Unemployment 152.7 149.0 4.6 -3.7 33.7 -2.4 29.2
Participation rate 67.8 67.2 0.2 -0.6 -1.1 ... ...
Unemployment rate 6.0 5.8 0.2 -0.2 1.2 ... ...
Employment rate 63.8 63.3 0.3 -0.5 -1.9 ... ...
Ottawa–Gatineau, Ontario/Quebec               
Population 1,285.6 1,289.6 ... 4.0 40.7 0.3 3.3
Labour force 890.3 890.4 4.6 0.1 39.7 0.0 4.7
Employment 849.1 849.8 4.7 0.7 32.2 0.1 3.9
Unemployment 41.2 40.6 1.9 -0.6 7.5 -1.5 22.7
Participation rate 69.3 69.0 0.4 -0.3 0.9 ... ...
Unemployment rate 4.6 4.6 0.2 0.0 0.7 ... ...
Employment rate 66.0 65.9 0.4 -0.1 0.4 ... ...
Ottawa–Gatineau, Quebec part, Ontario/Quebec              
Population 296.5 296.8 ... 0.3 4.6 0.1 1.6
Labour force 199.9 202.1 1.5 2.2 3.9 1.1 2.0
Employment 190.6 192.3 1.6 1.7 2.1 0.9 1.1
Unemployment 9.2 9.8 0.5 0.6 1.8 6.5 22.5
Participation rate 67.4 68.1 0.5 0.7 0.3 ... ...
Unemployment rate 4.6 4.8 0.3 0.2 0.8 ... ...
Employment rate 64.3 64.8 0.5 0.5 -0.3 ... ...
Ottawa–Gatineau, Ontario part, Ontario/Quebec              
Population 989.2 992.7 ... 3.5 36.0 0.4 3.8
Labour force 690.5 688.3 4.3 -2.2 35.8 -0.3 5.5
Employment 658.4 657.5 4.4 -0.9 30.1 -0.1 4.8
Unemployment 32.0 30.8 1.8 -1.2 5.7 -3.8 22.7
Participation rate 69.8 69.3 0.4 -0.5 1.1 ... ...
Unemployment rate 4.6 4.5 0.3 -0.1 0.7 ... ...
Employment rate 66.6 66.2 0.5 -0.4 0.6 ... ...
Kingston, Ontario              
Population 156.2 156.8 ... 0.6 6.8 0.4 4.5
Labour force 96.3 96.6 0.9 0.3 1.6 0.3 1.7
Employment 90.5 90.5 0.9 0.0 0.7 0.0 0.8
Unemployment 5.8 6.1 0.3 0.3 0.9 5.2 17.3
Participation rate 61.7 61.6 0.6 -0.1 -1.7 ... ...
Unemployment rate 6.0 6.3 0.3 0.3 0.8 ... ...
Employment rate 57.9 57.7 0.6 -0.2 -2.2 ... ...
Belleville, Ontario              
Population 91.1 91.1 ... 0.0 -6.5 0.0 -6.7
Labour force 48.0 44.6 3.2 -3.4 -16.3 -7.1 -26.8
Employment 46.1 42.7 2.9 -3.4 -14.5 -7.4 -25.3
Unemployment 1.9 1.8 0.9 -0.1 -1.9 -5.3 -51.4
Participation rate 52.7 49.0 2.0 -3.7 -13.4 ... ...
Unemployment rate 4.0 4.0 1.3 0.0 -2.1 ... ...
Employment rate 50.6 46.9 1.8 -3.7 -11.7 ... ...
Peterborough, Ontario              
Population 118.2 118.5 ... 0.3 3.3 0.3 2.9
Labour force 74.9 73.6 1.4 -1.3 8.9 -1.7 13.8
Employment 72.1 70.5 1.5 -1.6 8.3 -2.2 13.3
Unemployment 2.8 3.1 0.5 0.3 0.5 10.7 19.2
Participation rate 63.4 62.1 1.2 -1.3 5.9 ... ...
Unemployment rate 3.7 4.2 0.8 0.5 0.2 ... ...
Employment rate 61.0 59.5 1.3 -1.5 5.5 ... ...
Oshawa, Ontario              
Population 361.5 362.3 ... 0.8 8.4 0.2 2.4
Labour force 243.3 242.8 2.1 -0.5 3.0 -0.2 1.3
Employment 226.3 228.3 2.1 2.0 -0.6 0.9 -0.3
Unemployment 16.9 14.6 1.0 -2.3 3.7 -13.6 33.9
Participation rate 67.3 67.0 0.6 -0.3 -0.8 ... ...
Unemployment rate 6.9 6.0 0.4 -0.9 1.5 ... ...
Employment rate 62.6 63.0 0.6 0.4 -1.7 ... ...
Toronto, Ontario              
Population 5,920.9 5,945.4 ... 24.5 234.9 0.4 4.1
Labour force 3,945.3 3,942.5 11.4 -2.8 127.1 -0.1 3.3
Employment 3,680.9 3,674.2 11.4 -6.7 88.5 -0.2 2.5
Unemployment 264.4 268.3 6.2 3.9 38.6 1.5 16.8
Participation rate 66.6 66.3 0.2 -0.3 -0.5 ... ...
Unemployment rate 6.7 6.8 0.2 0.1 0.8 ... ...
Employment rate 62.2 61.8 0.2 -0.4 -1.0 ... ...
Hamilton, Ontario              
Population 689.5 691.0 ... 1.5 14.9 0.2 2.2
Labour force 442.3 444.3 3.2 2.0 3.8 0.5 0.9
Employment 417.5 417.5 3.3 0.0 -0.2 0.0 -0.0
Unemployment 24.7 26.8 1.3 2.1 4.0 8.5 17.5
Participation rate 64.1 64.3 0.5 0.2 -0.9 ... ...
Unemployment rate 5.6 6.0 0.3 0.4 0.8 ... ...
Employment rate 60.6 60.4 0.5 -0.2 -1.4 ... ...
St. Catharines–Niagara, Ontario               
Population 387.2 388.3 ... 1.1 10.3 0.3 2.7
Labour force 239.8 235.3 3.0 -4.5 5.1 -1.9 2.2
Employment 222.5 218.3 2.9 -4.2 -2.0 -1.9 -0.9
Unemployment 17.4 17.0 1.1 -0.4 7.1 -2.3 71.7
Participation rate 61.9 60.6 0.8 -1.3 -0.3 ... ...
Unemployment rate 7.3 7.2 0.5 -0.1 2.9 ... ...
Employment rate 57.5 56.2 0.8 -1.3 -2.1 ... ...
Kitchener–Cambridge–Waterloo, Ontario              
Population 534.6 536.9 ... 2.3 22.5 0.4 4.4
Labour force 367.1 368.7 2.0 1.6 9.9 0.4 2.8
Employment 343.0 343.7 2.1 0.7 5.9 0.2 1.7
Unemployment 24.1 24.9 1.1 0.8 3.9 3.3 18.6
Participation rate 68.7 68.7 0.4 0.0 -1.1 ... ...
Unemployment rate 6.6 6.8 0.3 0.2 0.9 ... ...
Employment rate 64.2 64.0 0.4 -0.2 -1.7 ... ...
Brantford, Ontario              
Population 122.9 123.1 ... 0.2 1.9 0.2 1.6
Labour force 81.6 83.1 1.0 1.5 -1.9 1.8 -2.2
Employment 78.0 79.0 1.1 1.0 -0.5 1.3 -0.6
Unemployment 3.5 4.1 0.4 0.6 -1.5 17.1 -26.8
Participation rate 66.4 67.5 0.9 1.1 -2.6 ... ...
Unemployment rate 4.3 4.9 0.5 0.6 -1.7 ... ...
Employment rate 63.5 64.2 0.9 0.7 -1.4 ... ...
Guelph, Ontario              
Population 147.9 148.3 ... 0.4 4.1 0.3 2.8
Labour force 108.7 109.1 1.3 0.4 8.4 0.4 8.3
Employment 102.8 104.4 1.3 1.6 7.9 1.6 8.2
Unemployment 5.9 4.7 0.6 -1.2 0.5 -20.3 11.9
Participation rate 73.5 73.6 0.9 0.1 3.8 ... ...
Unemployment rate 5.4 4.3 0.6 -1.1 0.1 ... ...
Employment rate 69.5 70.4 0.9 0.9 3.5 ... ...
London, Ontario              
Population 496.9 498.8 ... 1.9 18.4 0.4 3.8
Labour force 331.9 330.9 2.4 -1.0 18.5 -0.3 5.9
Employment 313.6 312.1 2.4 -1.5 15.0 -0.5 5.0
Unemployment 18.3 18.8 1.0 0.5 3.4 2.7 22.1
Participation rate 66.8 66.3 0.5 -0.5 1.3 ... ...
Unemployment rate 5.5 5.7 0.3 0.2 0.8 ... ...
Employment rate 63.1 62.6 0.5 -0.5 0.8 ... ...
Windsor, Ontario              
Population 320.6 321.7 ... 1.1 10.9 0.3 3.5
Labour force 200.1 200.8 2.0 0.7 -0.6 0.3 -0.3
Employment 184.3 186.4 2.1 2.1 -2.7 1.1 -1.4
Unemployment 15.8 14.4 0.9 -1.4 2.1 -8.9 17.1
Participation rate 62.4 62.4 0.6 0.0 -2.4 ... ...
Unemployment rate 7.9 7.2 0.5 -0.7 1.1 ... ...
Employment rate 57.5 57.9 0.7 0.4 -2.9 ... ...
Barrie, Ontario              
Population 189.7 190.3 ... 0.6 5.2 0.3 2.8
Labour force 130.5 133.0 1.6 2.5 -8.9 1.9 -6.3
Employment 121.7 123.6 1.7 1.9 -12.2 1.6 -9.0
Unemployment 8.8 9.4 0.8 0.6 3.3 6.8 54.1
Participation rate 68.8 69.9 0.9 1.1 -6.8 ... ...
Unemployment rate 6.7 7.1 0.6 0.4 2.8 ... ...
Employment rate 64.2 65.0 0.9 0.8 -8.4 ... ...
Greater Sudbury, Ontario              
Population 148.4 148.7 ... 0.3 2.4 0.2 1.6
Labour force 93.5 93.4 1.0 -0.1 3.2 -0.1 3.5
Employment 87.5 87.5 1.0 0.0 0.6 0.0 0.7
Unemployment 6.0 5.9 0.4 -0.1 2.7 -1.7 84.4
Participation rate 63.0 62.8 0.7 -0.2 1.1 ... ...
Unemployment rate 6.4 6.3 0.4 -0.1 2.8 ... ...
Employment rate 59.0 58.8 0.7 -0.2 -0.6 ... ...
Thunder Bay, Ontario              
Population 108.3 108.5 ... 0.2 1.8 0.2 1.7
Labour force 65.7 64.6 0.6 -1.1 0.0 -1.7 0.0
Employment 62.9 61.9 0.6 -1.0 -0.1 -1.6 -0.2
Unemployment 2.8 2.7 0.2 -0.1 0.1 -3.6 3.8
Participation rate 60.7 59.5 0.6 -1.2 -1.0 ... ...
Unemployment rate 4.3 4.2 0.3 -0.1 0.2 ... ...
Employment rate 58.1 57.1 0.6 -1.0 -1.0 ... ...
Winnipeg, Manitoba              
Population 744.3 747.1 ... 2.8 27.7 0.4 3.9
Labour force 501.6 502.5 1.7 0.9 14.3 0.2 2.9
Employment 479.2 481.5 1.8 2.3 15.1 0.5 3.2
Unemployment 22.4 20.9 1.0 -1.5 -0.9 -6.7 -4.1
Participation rate 67.4 67.3 0.2 -0.1 -0.6 ... ...
Unemployment rate 4.5 4.2 0.2 -0.3 -0.3 ... ...
Employment rate 64.4 64.4 0.2 0.0 -0.4 ... ...
Regina, Saskatchewan              
Population 232.0 232.9 ... 0.9 9.7 0.4 4.3
Labour force 160.8 159.7 1.1 -1.1 11.1 -0.7 7.5
Employment 153.1 152.0 1.1 -1.1 10.4 -0.7 7.3
Unemployment 7.7 7.7 0.5 0.0 0.6 0.0 8.5
Participation rate 69.3 68.6 0.5 -0.7 2.0 ... ...
Unemployment rate 4.8 4.8 0.3 0.0 0.0 ... ...
Employment rate 66.0 65.3 0.5 -0.7 1.9 ... ...
Saskatoon, Saskatchewan              
Population 296.4 297.5 ... 1.1 12.7 0.4 4.5
Labour force 213.2 213.6 1.2 0.4 15.1 0.2 7.6
Employment 201.2 201.5 1.2 0.3 11.2 0.1 5.9
Unemployment 12.0 12.1 0.5 0.1 3.9 0.8 47.6
Participation rate 71.9 71.8 0.4 -0.1 2.1 ... ...
Unemployment rate 5.6 5.7 0.3 0.1 1.6 ... ...
Employment rate 67.9 67.7 0.4 -0.2 0.9 ... ...
Lethbridge, Alberta              
Population 114.0 114.5 ... 0.5 5.3 0.4 4.9
Labour force 79.9 81.4 1.3 1.5 7.9 1.9 10.7
Employment 76.2 77.1 1.3 0.9 6.7 1.2 9.5
Unemployment 3.7 4.3 0.4 0.6 1.2 16.2 38.7
Participation rate 70.1 71.1 1.2 1.0 3.8 ... ...
Unemployment rate 4.6 5.3 0.6 0.7 1.1 ... ...
Employment rate 66.8 67.3 1.2 0.5 2.8 ... ...
Calgary, Alberta              
Population 1,380.3 1,386.4 ... 6.1 68.0 0.4 5.2
Labour force 962.6 972.7 6.0 10.1 37.1 1.0 4.0
Employment 907.1 916.3 6.2 9.2 41.9 1.0 4.8
Unemployment 55.5 56.4 2.7 0.9 -4.8 1.6 -7.8
Participation rate 69.7 70.2 0.4 0.5 -0.8 ... ...
Unemployment rate 5.8 5.8 0.3 0.0 -0.7 ... ...
Employment rate 65.7 66.1 0.5 0.4 -0.2 ... ...
Edmonton, Alberta              
Population 1,314.8 1,320.8 ... 6.0 67.5 0.5 5.4
Labour force 913.7 907.9 5.1 -5.8 29.9 -0.6 3.4
Employment 852.3 847.2 5.2 -5.1 18.4 -0.6 2.2
Unemployment 61.4 60.7 2.5 -0.7 11.5 -1.1 23.4
Participation rate 69.5 68.7 0.4 -0.8 -1.4 ... ...
Unemployment rate 6.7 6.7 0.3 0.0 1.1 ... ...
Employment rate 64.8 64.1 0.4 -0.7 -2.0 ... ...
Kelowna, British Columbia               
Population 195.2 195.7 ... 0.5 5.7 0.3 3.0
Labour force 113.2 114.8 2.1 1.6 -1.9 1.4 -1.6
Employment 107.3 108.4 2.0 1.1 -4.0 1.0 -3.6
Unemployment 5.9 6.4 0.7 0.5 2.1 8.5 48.8
Participation rate 58.0 58.7 1.1 0.7 -2.7 ... ...
Unemployment rate 5.2 5.6 0.5 0.4 1.9 ... ...
Employment rate 55.0 55.4 1.0 0.4 -3.8 ... ...
Abbotsford–Mission, British Columbia              
Population 179.7 180.2 ... 0.5 5.1 0.3 2.9
Labour force 114.5 113.8 1.2 -0.7 0.6 -0.6 0.5
Employment 109.7 109.7 1.2 0.0 2.8 0.0 2.6
Unemployment 4.8 4.1 0.5 -0.7 -2.2 -14.6 -34.9
Participation rate 63.7 63.2 0.7 -0.5 -1.4 ... ...
Unemployment rate 4.2 3.6 0.4 -0.6 -2.0 ... ...
Employment rate 61.0 60.9 0.7 -0.1 -0.2 ... ...
Vancouver, British Columbia               
Population 2,479.1 2,487.4 ... 8.3 83.4 0.3 3.5
Labour force 1,714.5 1,713.2 6.0 -1.3 84.4 -0.1 5.2
Employment 1,613.0 1,613.7 6.1 0.7 61.0 0.0 3.9
Unemployment 101.5 99.6 3.1 -1.9 23.5 -1.9 30.9
Participation rate 69.2 68.9 0.2 -0.3 1.1 ... ...
Unemployment rate 5.9 5.8 0.2 -0.1 1.1 ... ...
Employment rate 65.1 64.9 0.2 -0.2 0.3 ... ...
Victoria, British Columbia               
Population 367.4 368.4 ... 1.0 10.8 0.3 3.0
Labour force 244.5 241.7 2.2 -2.8 21.6 -1.1 9.8
Employment 234.4 230.8 2.2 -3.6 17.6 -1.5 8.3
Unemployment 10.2 10.9 0.8 0.7 4.0 6.9 58.0
Participation rate 66.5 65.6 0.6 -0.9 4.1 ... ...
Unemployment rate 4.2 4.5 0.3 0.3 1.4 ... ...
Employment rate 63.8 62.6 0.6 -1.2 3.0 ... ...
...
not applicable
Note(s):
The sum of individual categories may not always add up to the total as a result of rounding.
Source(s):
Date modified: