Table 7 
Labour force characteristics by census metropolitan area, three-month moving average, seasonally adjusted 

Labour force characteristics by census metropolitan area, three-month moving average, seasonally adjusted
  September
2023
October
2023
Standard error1 September to October 2023 October 2022 to October 2023 September to October 2023 October 2022 to October 2023
  thousands (except rates)thousands (except rates)thousands (except rates) change in thousands (except rates)change in thousands (except rates) % change% change
St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador              
Population 191.0 191.6 ... 0.6 6.1 0.3 3.3
Labour force 125.1 125.0 0.8 -0.1 -0.1 -0.1 -0.1
Employment 116.9 116.7 0.8 -0.2 -0.5 -0.2 -0.4
Unemployment 8.2 8.3 0.4 0.1 0.4 1.2 5.1
Participation rate 65.5 65.2 0.4 -0.3 -2.2 ... ...
Unemployment rate 6.6 6.6 0.3 0.0 0.3 ... ...
Employment rate 61.2 60.9 0.5 -0.3 -2.3 ... ...
Halifax, Nova Scotia              
Population 412.6 414.1 ... 1.5 16.9 0.4 4.3
Labour force 280.1 281.0 1.5 0.9 12.2 0.3 4.5
Employment 260.3 263.6 1.6 3.3 9.8 1.3 3.9
Unemployment 19.8 17.5 0.8 -2.3 2.5 -11.6 16.7
Participation rate 67.9 67.9 0.4 0.0 0.2 ... ...
Unemployment rate 7.1 6.2 0.3 -0.9 0.6 ... ...
Employment rate 63.1 63.7 0.4 0.6 -0.2 ... ...
Moncton, New Brunswick              
Population 145.4 146.0 ... 0.6 6.3 0.4 4.5
Labour force 95.7 95.2 0.9 -0.5 3.0 -0.5 3.3
Employment 90.2 89.2 0.9 -1.0 1.5 -1.1 1.7
Unemployment 5.5 6.0 0.4 0.5 1.5 9.1 33.3
Participation rate 65.8 65.2 0.6 -0.6 -0.8 ... ...
Unemployment rate 5.7 6.3 0.4 0.6 1.4 ... ...
Employment rate 62.0 61.1 0.6 -0.9 -1.7 ... ...
Saint John, New Brunswick               
Population 116.4 116.7 ... 0.3 3.2 0.3 2.8
Labour force 73.1 73.6 0.9 0.5 2.0 0.7 2.8
Employment 68.3 69.3 0.9 1.0 2.3 1.5 3.4
Unemployment 4.8 4.3 0.4 -0.5 -0.2 -10.4 -4.4
Participation rate 62.8 63.1 0.8 0.3 0.0 ... ...
Unemployment rate 6.6 5.8 0.5 -0.8 -0.5 ... ...
Employment rate 58.7 59.4 0.8 0.7 0.4 ... ...
Saguenay, Quebec              
Population 136.2 136.4 ... 0.2 0.9 0.1 0.7
Labour force 77.8 76.5 1.0 -1.3 -4.8 -1.7 -5.9
Employment 74.8 73.9 1.0 -0.9 -3.3 -1.2 -4.3
Unemployment 3.0 2.5 0.4 -0.5 -1.6 -16.7 -39.0
Participation rate 57.1 56.1 0.8 -1.0 -3.9 ... ...
Unemployment rate 3.9 3.3 0.4 -0.6 -1.7 ... ...
Employment rate 54.9 54.2 0.8 -0.7 -2.8 ... ...
Québec, Quebec              
Population 701.9 703.0 ... 1.1 8.5 0.2 1.2
Labour force 472.0 471.5 3.3 -0.5 12.7 -0.1 2.8
Employment 458.1 458.1 3.3 0.0 13.4 0.0 3.0
Unemployment 13.9 13.4 1.0 -0.5 -0.8 -3.6 -5.6
Participation rate 67.2 67.1 0.5 -0.1 1.0 ... ...
Unemployment rate 2.9 2.8 0.2 -0.1 -0.3 ... ...
Employment rate 65.3 65.2 0.5 -0.1 1.2 ... ...
Sherbrooke, Quebec              
Population 194.9 195.3 ... 0.4 3.8 0.2 2.0
Labour force 114.1 117.9 1.3 3.8 1.3 3.3 1.1
Employment 110.1 112.9 1.3 2.8 -0.5 2.5 -0.4
Unemployment 4.0 4.9 0.4 0.9 1.8 22.5 58.1
Participation rate 58.5 60.4 0.7 1.9 -0.5 ... ...
Unemployment rate 3.5 4.2 0.4 0.7 1.5 ... ...
Employment rate 56.5 57.8 0.7 1.3 -1.4 ... ...
Trois-Rivières, Quebec               
Population 139.4 139.6 ... 0.2 1.6 0.1 1.2
Labour force 82.7 86.0 0.9 3.3 5.4 4.0 6.7
Employment 79.4 82.2 1.0 2.8 4.6 3.5 5.9
Unemployment 3.3 3.8 0.3 0.5 0.9 15.2 31.0
Participation rate 59.3 61.6 0.7 2.3 3.2 ... ...
Unemployment rate 4.0 4.4 0.4 0.4 0.8 ... ...
Employment rate 57.0 58.9 0.7 1.9 2.7 ... ...
Montréal, Quebec              
Population 3,754.7 3,765.0 ... 10.3 79.3 0.3 2.2
Labour force 2,564.2 2,567.6 8.5 3.4 85.7 0.1 3.5
Employment 2,431.8 2,428.5 8.8 -3.3 65.6 -0.1 2.8
Unemployment 132.4 139.1 4.4 6.7 20.2 5.1 17.0
Participation rate 68.3 68.2 0.2 -0.1 0.9 ... ...
Unemployment rate 5.2 5.4 0.2 0.2 0.6 ... ...
Employment rate 64.8 64.5 0.2 -0.3 0.4 ... ...
Ottawa–Gatineau, Ontario/Quebec               
Population 1,275.0 1,278.8 ... 3.8 36.7 0.3 3.0
Labour force 882.1 890.5 4.5 8.4 50.2 1.0 6.0
Employment 838.9 847.0 4.5 8.1 40.4 1.0 5.0
Unemployment 43.2 43.5 1.6 0.3 9.7 0.7 28.7
Participation rate 69.2 69.6 0.4 0.4 1.9 ... ...
Unemployment rate 4.9 4.9 0.2 0.0 0.9 ... ...
Employment rate 65.8 66.2 0.4 0.4 1.3 ... ...
Ottawa–Gatineau, Quebec part, Ontario/Quebec              
Population 295.2 295.7 ... 0.5 4.5 0.2 1.5
Labour force 195.7 198.0 1.4 2.3 1.2 1.2 0.6
Employment 187.5 190.0 1.5 2.5 1.1 1.3 0.6
Unemployment 8.2 8.0 0.5 -0.2 0.1 -2.4 1.3
Participation rate 66.3 67.0 0.5 0.7 -0.6 ... ...
Unemployment rate 4.2 4.0 0.3 -0.2 0.0 ... ...
Employment rate 63.5 64.3 0.5 0.8 -0.6 ... ...
Ottawa–Gatineau, Ontario part, Ontario/Quebec              
Population 979.8 983.1 ... 3.3 32.2 0.3 3.4
Labour force 686.4 692.6 4.2 6.2 49.1 0.9 7.6
Employment 651.3 657.0 4.3 5.7 39.3 0.9 6.4
Unemployment 35.1 35.5 1.5 0.4 9.6 1.1 37.1
Participation rate 70.1 70.5 0.4 0.4 2.8 ... ...
Unemployment rate 5.1 5.1 0.2 0.0 1.1 ... ...
Employment rate 66.5 66.8 0.4 0.3 1.8 ... ...
Kingston, Ontario              
Population 154.5 155.1 ... 0.6 6.1 0.4 4.1
Labour force 96.8 95.9 0.8 -0.9 -0.2 -0.9 -0.2
Employment 92.7 91.3 0.8 -1.4 0.0 -1.5 0.0
Unemployment 4.1 4.6 0.3 0.5 -0.2 12.2 -4.2
Participation rate 62.7 61.8 0.5 -0.9 -2.7 ... ...
Unemployment rate 4.2 4.8 0.3 0.6 -0.2 ... ...
Employment rate 60.0 58.9 0.6 -1.1 -2.4 ... ...
Belleville, Ontario              
Population 107.1 101.2 ... -5.9 -1.1 -5.5 -1.1
Labour force 66.5 61.3 3.0 -5.2 -2.2 -7.8 -3.5
Employment 60.0 57.2 2.7 -2.8 -3.6 -4.7 -5.9
Unemployment 6.5 4.0 0.8 -2.5 1.3 -38.5 48.1
Participation rate 62.1 60.6 2.1 -1.5 -1.5 ... ...
Unemployment rate 9.8 6.5 1.4 -3.3 2.2 ... ...
Employment rate 56.0 56.5 2.0 0.5 -2.9 ... ...
Peterborough, Ontario              
Population 117.3 117.6 ... 0.3 2.8 0.3 2.4
Labour force 71.3 72.1 1.6 0.8 1.9 1.1 2.7
Employment 69.6 70.7 1.6 1.1 3.5 1.6 5.2
Unemployment 1.7 1.4 0.6 -0.3 -1.6 -17.6 -53.3
Participation rate 60.8 61.3 1.4 0.5 0.2 ... ...
Unemployment rate 2.4 1.9 0.8 -0.5 -2.4 ... ...
Employment rate 59.3 60.1 1.4 0.8 1.6 ... ...
Oshawa, Ontario              
Population 359.4 360.2 ... 0.8 7.7 0.2 2.2
Labour force 237.8 239.5 2.0 1.7 0.3 0.7 0.1
Employment 224.0 222.9 2.1 -1.1 -2.6 -0.5 -1.2
Unemployment 13.8 16.6 1.0 2.8 3.0 20.3 22.1
Participation rate 66.2 66.5 0.6 0.3 -1.4 ... ...
Unemployment rate 5.8 6.9 0.4 1.1 1.2 ... ...
Employment rate 62.3 61.9 0.6 -0.4 -2.1 ... ...
Toronto, Ontario              
Population 5,856.1 5,878.8 ... 22.7 198.8 0.4 3.5
Labour force 3,945.3 3,947.1 11.1 1.8 149.0 0.0 3.9
Employment 3,687.5 3,684.5 11.0 -3.0 120.5 -0.1 3.4
Unemployment 257.7 262.6 5.9 4.9 28.5 1.9 12.2
Participation rate 67.4 67.1 0.2 -0.3 0.2 ... ...
Unemployment rate 6.5 6.7 0.2 0.2 0.5 ... ...
Employment rate 63.0 62.7 0.2 -0.3 0.0 ... ...
Hamilton, Ontario              
Population 685.5 686.9 ... 1.4 12.5 0.2 1.9
Labour force 438.5 440.0 2.9 1.5 -2.7 0.3 -0.6
Employment 414.6 417.3 3.0 2.7 -5.9 0.7 -1.4
Unemployment 23.9 22.7 1.3 -1.2 3.2 -5.0 16.4
Participation rate 64.0 64.1 0.4 0.1 -1.5 ... ...
Unemployment rate 5.5 5.2 0.3 -0.3 0.8 ... ...
Employment rate 60.5 60.8 0.4 0.3 -2.0 ... ...
St. Catharines–Niagara, Ontario               
Population 384.3 385.4 ... 1.1 8.4 0.3 2.2
Labour force 237.9 245.1 2.8 7.2 18.5 3.0 8.2
Employment 222.0 228.1 2.8 6.1 14.2 2.7 6.6
Unemployment 15.9 17.0 1.0 1.1 4.3 6.9 33.9
Participation rate 61.9 63.6 0.7 1.7 3.5 ... ...
Unemployment rate 6.7 6.9 0.4 0.2 1.3 ... ...
Employment rate 57.8 59.2 0.7 1.4 2.5 ... ...
Kitchener–Cambridge–Waterloo, Ontario              
Population 528.4 530.6 ... 2.2 19.2 0.4 3.8
Labour force 367.3 364.8 2.0 -2.5 7.3 -0.7 2.0
Employment 347.8 343.8 2.1 -4.0 7.4 -1.2 2.2
Unemployment 19.5 20.9 1.1 1.4 -0.1 7.2 -0.5
Participation rate 69.5 68.8 0.4 -0.7 -1.1 ... ...
Unemployment rate 5.3 5.7 0.3 0.4 -0.2 ... ...
Employment rate 65.8 64.8 0.4 -1.0 -1.0 ... ...
Brantford, Ontario              
Population 122.5 122.6 ... 0.1 1.7 0.1 1.4
Labour force 80.2 80.5 0.9 0.3 -4.1 0.4 -4.8
Employment 76.3 77.2 1.0 0.9 -3.5 1.2 -4.3
Unemployment 3.8 3.3 0.4 -0.5 -0.7 -13.2 -17.5
Participation rate 65.5 65.7 0.7 0.2 -4.3 ... ...
Unemployment rate 4.7 4.1 0.5 -0.6 -0.6 ... ...
Employment rate 62.3 63.0 0.8 0.7 -3.7 ... ...
Guelph, Ontario              
Population 146.8 147.2 ... 0.4 3.6 0.3 2.5
Labour force 103.4 104.7 1.2 1.3 4.1 1.3 4.1
Employment 98.3 98.4 1.3 0.1 2.4 0.1 2.5
Unemployment 5.1 6.3 0.6 1.2 1.7 23.5 37.0
Participation rate 70.4 71.1 0.9 0.7 1.0 ... ...
Unemployment rate 4.9 6.0 0.6 1.1 1.4 ... ...
Employment rate 67.0 66.8 0.9 -0.2 -0.1 ... ...
London, Ontario              
Population 491.9 493.7 ... 1.8 15.7 0.4 3.3
Labour force 331.9 334.0 2.3 2.1 19.1 0.6 6.1
Employment 312.0 314.4 2.3 2.4 20.2 0.8 6.9
Unemployment 19.9 19.5 0.9 -0.4 -1.2 -2.0 -5.8
Participation rate 67.5 67.7 0.5 0.2 1.8 ... ...
Unemployment rate 6.0 5.8 0.3 -0.2 -0.8 ... ...
Employment rate 63.4 63.7 0.5 0.3 2.2 ... ...
Windsor, Ontario              
Population 317.5 318.6 ... 1.1 9.1 0.3 2.9
Labour force 200.2 199.4 2.1 -0.8 14.8 -0.4 8.0
Employment 188.1 185.2 2.1 -2.9 16.8 -1.5 10.0
Unemployment 12.0 14.2 1.0 2.2 -2.0 18.3 -12.3
Participation rate 63.1 62.6 0.7 -0.5 3.0 ... ...
Unemployment rate 6.0 7.1 0.5 1.1 -1.7 ... ...
Employment rate 59.2 58.1 0.7 -1.1 3.7 ... ...
Barrie, Ontario              
Population 188.4 188.9 ... 0.5 4.5 0.3 2.4
Labour force 133.1 130.4 1.7 -2.7 -0.4 -2.0 -0.3
Employment 127.1 124.4 1.8 -2.7 0.1 -2.1 0.1
Unemployment 6.0 6.1 0.8 0.1 -0.4 1.7 -6.2
Participation rate 70.6 69.0 0.9 -1.6 -1.9 ... ...
Unemployment rate 4.5 4.7 0.5 0.2 -0.3 ... ...
Employment rate 67.5 65.9 1.0 -1.6 -1.5 ... ...
Greater Sudbury, Ontario              
Population 147.7 148.0 ... 0.3 1.9 0.2 1.3
Labour force 89.9 91.2 1.0 1.3 3.2 1.4 3.6
Employment 85.8 86.5 1.0 0.7 2.2 0.8 2.6
Unemployment 4.1 4.8 0.4 0.7 1.0 17.1 26.3
Participation rate 60.9 61.6 0.7 0.7 1.4 ... ...
Unemployment rate 4.6 5.3 0.4 0.7 1.0 ... ...
Employment rate 58.1 58.4 0.7 0.3 0.7 ... ...
Thunder Bay, Ontario              
Population 107.8 108.0 ... 0.2 1.4 0.2 1.3
Labour force 67.0 67.1 0.6 0.1 3.5 0.1 5.5
Employment 63.8 64.1 0.6 0.3 3.9 0.5 6.5
Unemployment 3.2 3.0 0.2 -0.2 -0.4 -6.3 -11.8
Participation rate 62.2 62.1 0.6 -0.1 2.4 ... ...
Unemployment rate 4.8 4.5 0.3 -0.3 -0.8 ... ...
Employment rate 59.2 59.4 0.6 0.2 2.9 ... ...
Winnipeg, Manitoba              
Population 737.1 739.7 ... 2.6 23.4 0.4 3.3
Labour force 499.1 502.2 1.7 3.1 11.3 0.6 2.3
Employment 472.9 476.0 1.7 3.1 10.0 0.7 2.1
Unemployment 26.2 26.2 0.9 0.0 1.3 0.0 5.2
Participation rate 67.7 67.9 0.2 0.2 -0.6 ... ...
Unemployment rate 5.2 5.2 0.2 0.0 0.1 ... ...
Employment rate 64.2 64.4 0.2 0.2 -0.7 ... ...
Regina, Saskatchewan              
Population 229.6 230.5 ... 0.9 9.1 0.4 4.1
Labour force 156.9 157.8 1.1 0.9 11.5 0.6 7.9
Employment 148.6 149.4 1.2 0.8 10.2 0.5 7.3
Unemployment 8.2 8.5 0.5 0.3 1.3 3.7 18.1
Participation rate 68.3 68.5 0.5 0.2 2.4 ... ...
Unemployment rate 5.2 5.4 0.3 0.2 0.5 ... ...
Employment rate 64.7 64.8 0.5 0.1 1.9 ... ...
Saskatoon, Saskatchewan              
Population 293.4 294.5 ... 1.1 12.2 0.4 4.3
Labour force 210.0 212.0 1.1 2.0 12.1 1.0 6.1
Employment 198.6 200.5 1.2 1.9 9.0 1.0 4.7
Unemployment 11.4 11.6 0.6 0.2 3.2 1.8 38.1
Participation rate 71.6 72.0 0.4 0.4 1.2 ... ...
Unemployment rate 5.4 5.5 0.3 0.1 1.3 ... ...
Employment rate 67.7 68.1 0.4 0.4 0.3 ... ...
Lethbridge, Alberta              
Population 112.7 113.2 ... 0.5 4.9 0.4 4.5
Labour force 71.6 74.2 1.2 2.6 1.3 3.6 1.8
Employment 67.6 70.5 1.2 2.9 0.6 4.3 0.9
Unemployment 4.0 3.7 0.4 -0.3 0.7 -7.5 23.3
Participation rate 63.5 65.5 1.1 2.0 -1.8 ... ...
Unemployment rate 5.6 5.0 0.6 -0.6 0.9 ... ...
Employment rate 60.0 62.3 1.1 2.3 -2.2 ... ...
Calgary, Alberta              
Population 1,363.6 1,369.5 ... 5.9 62.9 0.4 4.8
Labour force 977.3 971.2 5.5 -6.1 25.6 -0.6 2.7
Employment 919.7 915.0 5.8 -4.7 23.5 -0.5 2.6
Unemployment 57.5 56.2 2.7 -1.3 2.1 -2.3 3.9
Participation rate 71.7 70.9 0.4 -0.8 -1.5 ... ...
Unemployment rate 5.9 5.8 0.3 -0.1 0.1 ... ...
Employment rate 67.4 66.8 0.4 -0.6 -1.4 ... ...
Edmonton, Alberta              
Population 1,298.0 1,304.0 ... 6.0 62.2 0.5 5.0
Labour force 907.2 909.1 4.8 1.9 50.1 0.2 5.8
Employment 852.3 854.1 4.8 1.8 42.3 0.2 5.2
Unemployment 54.8 55.0 2.3 0.2 7.8 0.4 16.5
Participation rate 69.9 69.7 0.4 -0.2 0.5 ... ...
Unemployment rate 6.0 6.0 0.3 0.0 0.5 ... ...
Employment rate 65.7 65.5 0.4 -0.2 0.1 ... ...
Kelowna, British Columbia               
Population 193.9 194.4 ... 0.5 5.0 0.3 2.6
Labour force 121.9 116.8 2.0 -5.1 3.0 -4.2 2.6
Employment 118.9 113.3 2.0 -5.6 4.4 -4.7 4.0
Unemployment 3.0 3.4 0.7 0.4 -1.4 13.3 -29.2
Participation rate 62.9 60.1 1.1 -2.8 0.0 ... ...
Unemployment rate 2.5 2.9 0.5 0.4 -1.3 ... ...
Employment rate 61.3 58.3 1.0 -3.0 0.8 ... ...
Abbotsford–Mission, British Columbia              
Population 178.5 178.9 ... 0.4 4.2 0.2 2.4
Labour force 112.3 113.9 1.2 1.6 -5.4 1.4 -4.5
Employment 105.7 107.0 1.2 1.3 -5.7 1.2 -5.1
Unemployment 6.5 6.9 0.5 0.4 0.2 6.2 3.0
Participation rate 62.9 63.7 0.7 0.8 -4.6 ... ...
Unemployment rate 5.8 6.1 0.4 0.3 0.5 ... ...
Employment rate 59.2 59.8 0.7 0.6 -4.7 ... ...
Vancouver, British Columbia               
Population 2,458.5 2,465.8 ... 7.3 68.2 0.3 2.8
Labour force 1,689.6 1,701.4 5.6 11.8 76.9 0.7 4.7
Employment 1,590.4 1,602.4 5.6 12.0 49.6 0.8 3.2
Unemployment 99.3 99.1 2.8 -0.2 27.4 -0.2 38.2
Participation rate 68.7 69.0 0.2 0.3 1.2 ... ...
Unemployment rate 5.9 5.8 0.2 -0.1 1.4 ... ...
Employment rate 64.7 65.0 0.2 0.3 0.2 ... ...
Victoria, British Columbia               
Population 365.0 365.9 ... 0.9 9.6 0.2 2.7
Labour force 237.5 244.3 1.9 6.8 18.8 2.9 8.3
Employment 228.5 235.0 2.0 6.5 18.8 2.8 8.7
Unemployment 9.0 9.3 0.7 0.3 0.0 3.3 0.0
Participation rate 65.1 66.8 0.5 1.7 3.5 ... ...
Unemployment rate 3.8 3.8 0.3 0.0 -0.3 ... ...
Employment rate 62.6 64.2 0.6 1.6 3.5 ... ...
...
not applicable
Note(s):
The sum of individual categories may not always add up to the total as a result of rounding.
Source(s):
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