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Canada's demographic estimates for July 1, 2023: record-high population growth since 1957

Released: 2023-09-27

Total population estimate — Canada

40,097,761

July 1, 2023

2.9% increase

(annual change)

Total population estimate — N.L.

538,605

July 1, 2023

1.3% increase

(annual change)

Total population estimate — P.E.I.

173,787

July 1, 2023

3.9% increase

(annual change)

Total population estimate — N.S.

1,058,694

July 1, 2023

3.2% increase

(annual change)

Total population estimate — N.B.

834,691

July 1, 2023

3.1% increase

(annual change)

Total population estimate — Que.

8,874,683

July 1, 2023

2.3% increase

(annual change)

Total population estimate — Ont.

15,608,369

July 1, 2023

3.0% increase

(annual change)

Total population estimate — Man.

1,454,902

July 1, 2023

2.9% increase

(annual change)

Total population estimate — Sask.

1,209,107

July 1, 2023

2.6% increase

(annual change)

Total population estimate — Alta.

4,695,290

July 1, 2023

4.0% increase

(annual change)

Total population estimate — B.C.

5,519,013

July 1, 2023

3.0% increase

(annual change)

Total population estimate — Y.T.

44,975

July 1, 2023

2.4% increase

(annual change)

Total population estimate — N.W.T.

44,972

July 1, 2023

0.6% increase

(annual change)

Total population estimate — Nvt.

40,673

July 1, 2023

0.5% increase

(annual change)

After celebrating the Canadian population reaching 40 million on June 16, the country's population was estimated at 40,097,761 on July 1, 2023, an increase of 1,158,705 people (+2.9%) from July 1, 2022.

Canada's population reaches 40 million

On June 16, 2023, Statistics Canada announced that Canada's population passed the 40 million mark according to the Canada's population clock (real-time model). Today's release of total demographic estimates and related data tables for a reference date of July 1, 2023, is the first since reaching that milestone.

Canada continued to lead G7 countries for population growth and was likely among the top 20 fastest growing countries in the world. The population growth on July 1, 2023, marks the highest population growth rate recorded for a 12-month period since 1957 (+3.3%), during the Hungarian refugee crisis and at the height of the baby boom. In absolute numbers, the increase observed last year is more than twice the increase observed in 1957 (+555,000). If the rate of population growth seen this past year remained constant in the future, it would lead to the Canadian population doubling in 25 years.

Rise in temporary immigration lifts population growth

Close to 98% of the growth in the Canadian population from July 1, 2022, to July 1, 2023, came from net international migration, with 2% coming from the difference between births and deaths. Fertility reached record-low levels in 2022, with 1.33 children per woman, compared with 1.44 in 2021. More information on births, fertility levels and the most popular baby names in 2022 can be found in the products Fertility indicators, provinces and territories: Interactive dashboard, Baby Names Observatory, and the new infographic Canada's most popular baby names in 2022.

As of July 1, 2023, an estimated 2,198,679 non-permanent residents lived in Canada, a 46% increase from the same date one year prior (1,500,978). This represents the largest year-over-year increase in the population of non-permanent residents living in Canada since comparable data are available (1971/1972), with the increase in work and study permits accounting for most of the change in the last year. This estimated population of 2.2 million non-permanent residents now outnumbers the 1.8 million Indigenous people enumerated during the 2021 Census of Population.

New estimates of non-permanent residents

Statistics Canada's demographic estimates benefit from ongoing methodological adjustments in order for the program to adapt to societal, economic, and policy changes. In addition to existing tables on net gains in non-permanent residents for a given period, Statistics Canada is releasing today a new data table on the estimated number of non-permanent residents by type for Canada, the provinces and territories.

These data tables now benefit from the inclusion of family members living with permit holders and include new adjustments to the delays incurred after permits expire, to continue to take into account non-permanent residents living in Canada with an expired permit, and in the process of renewal.

The effect of these new adjustments on the total size of the Canadian population is minimal.

International migration accounted for nearly all growth from July 1, 2022, to July 1, 2023 (98%), because of a high number of immigrants (468,817) and an increase in the number of non-permanent residents (+697,701). The reported annual increase in the number of non-permanent residents in the country continued to outpace the number of new immigrants, as was first observed in 2022. The number of non-permanent residents holding a work permit was estimated to have reached 1,426,187 on July 1, 2023, up from 868,470 a year prior (+64%) and contributing most to the change in non-permanent residents.

With the continuing Russian invasion of Ukraine, the Canada-Ukraine Authorization for Emergency Travel implemented in March 2022 has helped tens of thousands of Ukrainians relocate to Canada. Most people with this authorization are also permit holders, with the rest consisting mainly of family members living with permit holders.

Growth from coast-to-coast

From July 1, 2022, to July 1, 2023, Alberta experienced the fastest demographic growth of all provinces and territories at 4.0%. This growth was not only due to international migration but was also the result of record net gains from migratory exchanges between provinces. Alberta saw 56,245 more people moving to the province than leaving it, making these not only the highest annual net interprovincial gains for Alberta, but the highest annual net interprovincial gains ever recorded for any single province or territory since comparable data are available (1971/1972).

During the same period, seven provinces saw their population increase at rates never observed since comparable data exists: Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba, and Saskatchewan.

All three Maritime provinces registered a population growth of at least 3.0%: Prince Edward Island (+3.9%), Nova Scotia (+3.2%), and New Brunswick (+3.1%).

Ontario and British Columbia (+3.0% each) came right after Alberta and the Maritime provinces for population growth, with Manitoba (+2.9%) and Saskatchewan (+2.6%) close behind.

While its population growth hit a record-high of 2.3%, Quebec nonetheless saw the second lowest growth among all provinces.

Despite registering its highest population growth in more than 50 years, Newfoundland and Labrador's rate was the lowest among provinces, at 1.3%.

The strong growth seen across the country is, in large part, a result of the increase in the number of temporary immigrants. As of July 1, 2023, Ontario, Quebec, and British Columbia had the largest populations of non-permanent residents. Close to 1 million non-permanent residents lived in Ontario, almost half a million in Quebec and around 400,000 in British Columbia.

Looking ahead

The population aged 65 and older is also growing fast with the largest cohorts of baby boomers currently reaching age 65. In recent years, people aged 65 and older have outnumbered children aged 0 to 14. An update on Canada's population aging will be provided by Statistics Canada on February 21, 2024, when demographic estimates by age and gender as of July 1, 2023, will be released.

  Note to readers

For the first time, the demographic estimates released today are based on 2021 Census population counts, adjusted for census net undercoverage and incompletely enumerated reserves and settlements. To these counts, the population growth estimates for the period from May 11, 2021, to the date of the estimate are added. The data starting from July 2001 were also updated.

The rebasing process is part of the normal procedures carried out after each census to ensure the highest possible accuracy of the demographic estimates. It is expected that demographic estimates released today slightly differ from those that were published in previous releases and that were based on the 2016 Census. The size of the changes measured for the 2021 Census cycle is similar to what was noted for previous five-year census cycles.

The demographic estimates released today are considered preliminary and will be updated following the standard procedure followed by Statistics Canada for decades.

Upcoming release

Annual demographic estimates by age and gender will be released on February 21, 2024.

Canada's population clock (real-time model)

Canada's population clock (real-time model) was updated today with the most recent quarterly population estimates released by Statistics Canada.

Canada's population clock is an interactive learning tool aiming to give Canadians a sense of the pace of the country's population renewal. The population estimates and census counts remain the measures used by various government programs.

Definitions

For the purpose of calculating rates, the denominator is the average population during the period (the average of the start-of-period and end-of-period populations). For the sake of brevity, the terms growth, population growth and population growth rate have the same meaning.

Population growth or total growth in Canada is equal to natural increase (births minus deaths) plus international migratory increase (immigrants plus net non-permanent residents minus net emigration). At the provincial and territorial levels, total population growth also includes interprovincial migratory increase.

Net international migration refers to the total number of moves between Canada and abroad that result in a change in the usual place of residence. It is calculated by adding immigrants, returning emigrants and net non-permanent residents, then subtracting emigrants.

An immigrant refers to a person who is a permanent resident or a landed immigrant. Such a person has been granted the right to live in Canada permanently by immigration authorities. Persons who are born abroad to a Canadian parent are not immigrants but are included in the returning emigrant component. For the Centre for Demography, the terms immigrant, landed immigrant and permanent resident refer to the same concept.

Non-permanent resident refers to a person from another country with a usual place of residence in Canada and who has a work or study permit, or who has claimed refugee status (asylum claimant). Family members living with work or study permit holders are also included unless these family members are already Canadian citizens, landed immigrants (permanent residents), or non-permanent residents themselves. For the Centre for Demography, the terms non-permanent resident and temporary immigrant refer to the same concept.

Interprovincial migration represents all movements from one province or territory to another involving a change in the usual place of residence. A person who takes up residence in another province or territory is an out-migrant with reference to the province or territory of origin and an in-migrant with reference to the province or territory of destination.

Acknowledgements

The Demographic Estimates Program of Statistics Canada is grateful for the ongoing support and partnership with Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada which greatly contributes to the accuracy of the estimation of non-permanent residents.

Products

The publication Annual Demographic Estimates: Canada, Provinces and Territories, 2023 (total population only) (Catalogue number91-215-X) is now available.

The product Quarterly demographic estimates, provinces and territories: Interactive dashboard (Catalogue number71-607-X) is also available.

The product Interprovincial migration indicators, provinces and territories: Interactive dashboard (Catalogue number71-607-X) is also available.

The product Canada's population clock (real-time model) (Catalogue number71-607-X) is also available.

The product Fertility indicators, provinces and territories: Interactive dashboard (Catalogue number71-607-X) is also available.

The product Baby Names Observatory(Catalogue number71-607-X) is also available.

The product Canada's most popular baby names in 2022 (Catalogue number11-627-M) is also available.

The Population and Demography Statistics and Older Adults and Population Aging Statistics portals are also available.

Contact information

For more information, or to enquire about the concepts, methods or data quality of this release, contact us (toll-free 1-800-263-1136; 514-283-8300; infostats@statcan.gc.ca) or Media Relations (statcan.mediahotline-ligneinfomedias.statcan@statcan.gc.ca).

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