Table 7 
Labour force characteristics by census metropolitan area, three-month moving average, seasonally adjusted 

Labour force characteristics by census metropolitan area, three-month moving average, seasonally adjusted
  June
2023
July
2023
Standard error1 June to July 2023 July 2022 to July 2023 June to July 2023 July 2022 to July 2023
  thousands (except rates)thousands (except rates)thousands (except rates) change in thousands (except rates)change in thousands (except rates) % change% change
St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador              
Population 189.3 189.9 ... 0.6 5.4 0.3 2.9
Labour force 123.6 124.2 0.8 0.6 -2.6 0.5 -2.1
Employment 117.5 117.0 0.8 -0.5 -1.7 -0.4 -1.4
Unemployment 6.2 7.3 0.4 1.1 -0.8 17.7 -9.9
Participation rate 65.3 65.4 0.4 0.1 -3.3 ... ...
Unemployment rate 5.0 5.9 0.3 0.9 -0.5 ... ...
Employment rate 62.1 61.6 0.5 -0.5 -2.7 ... ...
Halifax, Nova Scotia              
Population 407.4 409.2 ... 1.8 16.6 0.4 4.2
Labour force 277.3 278.4 1.5 1.1 13.9 0.4 5.3
Employment 261.6 259.6 1.6 -2.0 7.8 -0.8 3.1
Unemployment 15.7 18.9 0.8 3.2 6.2 20.4 48.8
Participation rate 68.1 68.0 0.4 -0.1 0.6 ... ...
Unemployment rate 5.7 6.8 0.3 1.1 2.0 ... ...
Employment rate 64.2 63.4 0.4 -0.8 -0.7 ... ...
Moncton, New Brunswick              
Population 143.6 144.2 ... 0.6 6.1 0.4 4.4
Labour force 95.7 96.2 0.9 0.5 5.2 0.5 5.7
Employment 90.5 91.1 0.9 0.6 4.0 0.7 4.6
Unemployment 5.2 5.1 0.4 -0.1 1.3 -1.9 34.2
Participation rate 66.6 66.7 0.6 0.1 0.8 ... ...
Unemployment rate 5.4 5.3 0.4 -0.1 1.1 ... ...
Employment rate 63.0 63.2 0.6 0.2 0.1 ... ...
Saint John, New Brunswick               
Population 115.4 115.8 ... 0.4 3.2 0.3 2.8
Labour force 70.2 70.6 0.9 0.4 0.8 0.6 1.1
Employment 66.0 66.6 0.9 0.6 2.1 0.9 3.3
Unemployment 4.2 4.0 0.4 -0.2 -1.4 -4.8 -25.9
Participation rate 60.8 61.0 0.8 0.2 -1.0 ... ...
Unemployment rate 6.0 5.7 0.5 -0.3 -2.0 ... ...
Employment rate 57.2 57.5 0.8 0.3 0.2 ... ...
Saguenay, Quebec              
Population 136.0 136.0 ... 0.0 0.6 0.0 0.4
Labour force 81.7 80.9 1.0 -0.8 -0.7 -1.0 -0.9
Employment 78.9 77.6 1.0 -1.3 -1.6 -1.6 -2.0
Unemployment 2.8 3.3 0.4 0.5 0.9 17.9 37.5
Participation rate 60.1 59.5 0.8 -0.6 -0.8 ... ...
Unemployment rate 3.4 4.1 0.4 0.7 1.2 ... ...
Employment rate 58.0 57.1 0.8 -0.9 -1.4 ... ...
Québec, Quebec              
Population 699.4 700.1 ... 0.7 7.7 0.1 1.1
Labour force 462.5 466.6 3.3 4.1 5.6 0.9 1.2
Employment 448.0 450.2 3.3 2.2 3.0 0.5 0.7
Unemployment 14.5 16.5 1.0 2.0 2.7 13.8 19.6
Participation rate 66.1 66.6 0.5 0.5 0.0 ... ...
Unemployment rate 3.1 3.5 0.2 0.4 0.5 ... ...
Employment rate 64.1 64.3 0.5 0.2 -0.3 ... ...
Sherbrooke, Quebec              
Population 193.8 194.1 ... 0.3 3.5 0.2 1.8
Labour force 114.3 112.7 1.3 -1.6 -0.3 -1.4 -0.3
Employment 109.7 108.9 1.3 -0.8 -0.5 -0.7 -0.5
Unemployment 4.6 3.8 0.4 -0.8 0.2 -17.4 5.6
Participation rate 59.0 58.1 0.7 -0.9 -1.2 ... ...
Unemployment rate 4.0 3.4 0.4 -0.6 0.2 ... ...
Employment rate 56.6 56.1 0.7 -0.5 -1.3 ... ...
Trois-Rivières, Quebec               
Population 138.9 139.0 ... 0.1 1.3 0.1 0.9
Labour force 80.0 79.6 0.9 -0.4 -0.1 -0.5 -0.1
Employment 77.0 76.4 1.0 -0.6 -0.5 -0.8 -0.7
Unemployment 3.0 3.2 0.3 0.2 0.5 6.7 18.5
Participation rate 57.6 57.3 0.7 -0.3 -0.6 ... ...
Unemployment rate 3.8 4.0 0.4 0.2 0.6 ... ...
Employment rate 55.4 55.0 0.7 -0.4 -0.8 ... ...
Montréal, Quebec              
Population 3,730.1 3,737.5 ... 7.4 65.0 0.2 1.8
Labour force 2,548.8 2,551.8 8.5 3.0 99.9 0.1 4.1
Employment 2,436.0 2,433.2 8.8 -2.8 97.9 -0.1 4.2
Unemployment 112.8 118.6 4.4 5.8 2.0 5.1 1.7
Participation rate 68.3 68.3 0.2 0.0 1.5 ... ...
Unemployment rate 4.4 4.6 0.2 0.2 -0.2 ... ...
Employment rate 65.3 65.1 0.2 -0.2 1.5 ... ...
Ottawa–Gatineau, Ontario/Quebec               
Population 1,264.4 1,267.8 ... 3.4 31.8 0.3 2.6
Labour force 865.7 872.6 4.5 6.9 42.5 0.8 5.1
Employment 828.2 832.9 4.5 4.7 35.0 0.6 4.4
Unemployment 37.5 39.7 1.6 2.2 7.5 5.9 23.3
Participation rate 68.5 68.8 0.4 0.3 1.6 ... ...
Unemployment rate 4.3 4.5 0.2 0.2 0.6 ... ...
Employment rate 65.5 65.7 0.4 0.2 1.1 ... ...
Ottawa–Gatineau, Quebec part, Ontario/Quebec              
Population 294.0 294.4 ... 0.4 4.3 0.1 1.5
Labour force 195.7 193.8 1.4 -1.9 -2.5 -1.0 -1.3
Employment 187.5 185.5 1.5 -2.0 -3.5 -1.1 -1.9
Unemployment 8.2 8.3 0.5 0.1 1.0 1.2 13.7
Participation rate 66.6 65.8 0.5 -0.8 -1.9 ... ...
Unemployment rate 4.2 4.3 0.3 0.1 0.6 ... ...
Employment rate 63.8 63.0 0.5 -0.8 -2.1 ... ...
Ottawa–Gatineau, Ontario part, Ontario/Quebec              
Population 970.3 973.4 ... 3.1 27.4 0.3 2.9
Labour force 670.0 678.8 4.2 8.8 45.0 1.3 7.1
Employment 640.7 647.4 4.3 6.7 38.5 1.0 6.3
Unemployment 29.3 31.4 1.5 2.1 6.5 7.2 26.1
Participation rate 69.1 69.7 0.4 0.6 2.7 ... ...
Unemployment rate 4.4 4.6 0.2 0.2 0.7 ... ...
Employment rate 66.0 66.5 0.4 0.5 2.1 ... ...
Kingston, Ontario              
Population 152.6 153.2 ... 0.6 5.1 0.4 3.4
Labour force 97.8 97.6 0.8 -0.2 3.5 -0.2 3.7
Employment 94.0 94.1 0.8 0.1 4.8 0.1 5.4
Unemployment 3.8 3.5 0.3 -0.3 -1.3 -7.9 -27.1
Participation rate 64.1 63.7 0.5 -0.4 0.2 ... ...
Unemployment rate 3.9 3.6 0.3 -0.3 -1.5 ... ...
Employment rate 61.6 61.4 0.6 -0.2 1.1 ... ...
Belleville, Ontario              
Population 110.0 111.6 ... 1.6 12.6 1.5 12.7
Labour force 70.6 71.7 3.0 1.1 8.1 1.6 12.7
Employment 65.9 64.4 2.7 -1.5 2.9 -2.3 4.7
Unemployment 4.7 7.3 0.8 2.6 5.1 55.3 231.8
Participation rate 64.2 64.2 2.1 0.0 0.0 ... ...
Unemployment rate 6.7 10.2 1.4 3.5 6.7 ... ...
Employment rate 59.9 57.7 2.0 -2.2 -4.4 ... ...
Peterborough, Ontario              
Population 116.4 116.7 ... 0.3 2.2 0.3 1.9
Labour force 69.1 70.3 1.6 1.2 -2.8 1.7 -3.8
Employment 64.0 65.5 1.6 1.5 -2.8 2.3 -4.1
Unemployment 5.1 4.8 0.6 -0.3 0.0 -5.9 0.0
Participation rate 59.4 60.2 1.4 0.8 -3.6 ... ...
Unemployment rate 7.4 6.8 0.8 -0.6 0.2 ... ...
Employment rate 55.0 56.1 1.4 1.1 -3.6 ... ...
Oshawa, Ontario              
Population 357.1 357.8 ... 0.7 6.5 0.2 1.9
Labour force 233.2 234.0 2.0 0.8 -5.7 0.3 -2.4
Employment 221.0 221.3 2.1 0.3 -6.5 0.1 -2.9
Unemployment 12.2 12.7 1.0 0.5 0.8 4.1 6.7
Participation rate 65.3 65.4 0.6 0.1 -2.8 ... ...
Unemployment rate 5.2 5.4 0.4 0.2 0.4 ... ...
Employment rate 61.9 61.9 0.6 0.0 -2.9 ... ...
Toronto, Ontario              
Population 5,793.0 5,812.4 ... 19.4 156.6 0.3 2.8
Labour force 3,934.4 3,960.1 11.1 25.7 146.3 0.7 3.8
Employment 3,694.5 3,705.8 11.0 11.3 115.0 0.3 3.2
Unemployment 239.9 254.4 5.9 14.5 31.4 6.0 14.1
Participation rate 67.9 68.1 0.2 0.2 0.7 ... ...
Unemployment rate 6.1 6.4 0.2 0.3 0.6 ... ...
Employment rate 63.8 63.8 0.2 0.0 0.3 ... ...
Hamilton, Ontario              
Population 681.4 682.6 ... 1.2 9.5 0.2 1.4
Labour force 435.0 437.8 2.9 2.8 -3.1 0.6 -0.7
Employment 413.3 414.4 3.0 1.1 -7.4 0.3 -1.8
Unemployment 21.7 23.4 1.3 1.7 4.3 7.8 22.5
Participation rate 63.8 64.1 0.4 0.3 -1.4 ... ...
Unemployment rate 5.0 5.3 0.3 0.3 1.0 ... ...
Employment rate 60.7 60.7 0.4 0.0 -2.0 ... ...
St. Catharines–Niagara, Ontario               
Population 381.5 382.4 ... 0.9 6.2 0.2 1.6
Labour force 232.3 230.1 2.8 -2.2 -5.4 -0.9 -2.3
Employment 219.0 216.3 2.8 -2.7 -8.0 -1.2 -3.6
Unemployment 13.3 13.8 1.0 0.5 2.6 3.8 23.2
Participation rate 60.9 60.2 0.7 -0.7 -2.4 ... ...
Unemployment rate 5.7 6.0 0.4 0.3 1.2 ... ...
Employment rate 57.4 56.6 0.7 -0.8 -3.0 ... ...
Kitchener–Cambridge–Waterloo, Ontario              
Population 522.4 524.2 ... 1.8 15.2 0.3 3.0
Labour force 368.1 370.3 2.0 2.2 14.7 0.6 4.1
Employment 345.2 348.6 2.1 3.4 13.3 1.0 4.0
Unemployment 22.9 21.7 1.1 -1.2 1.5 -5.2 7.4
Participation rate 70.5 70.6 0.4 0.1 0.7 ... ...
Unemployment rate 6.2 5.9 0.3 -0.3 0.2 ... ...
Employment rate 66.1 66.5 0.4 0.4 0.6 ... ...
Brantford, Ontario              
Population 121.9 122.1 ... 0.2 1.5 0.2 1.2
Labour force 82.1 80.3 0.9 -1.8 -0.2 -2.2 -0.2
Employment 78.9 76.9 1.0 -2.0 -0.3 -2.5 -0.4
Unemployment 3.2 3.4 0.4 0.2 0.2 6.3 6.3
Participation rate 67.4 65.8 0.7 -1.6 -0.9 ... ...
Unemployment rate 3.9 4.2 0.5 0.3 0.2 ... ...
Employment rate 64.7 63.0 0.8 -1.7 -1.0 ... ...
Guelph, Ontario              
Population 145.7 146.1 ... 0.4 3.1 0.3 2.2
Labour force 106.0 104.5 1.2 -1.5 4.5 -1.4 4.5
Employment 101.5 99.9 1.3 -1.6 2.5 -1.6 2.6
Unemployment 4.5 4.6 0.6 0.1 2.0 2.2 76.9
Participation rate 72.8 71.5 0.9 -1.3 1.6 ... ...
Unemployment rate 4.2 4.4 0.6 0.2 1.8 ... ...
Employment rate 69.7 68.4 0.9 -1.3 0.3 ... ...
London, Ontario              
Population 487.0 488.5 ... 1.5 12.6 0.3 2.6
Labour force 317.6 320.8 2.3 3.2 7.6 1.0 2.4
Employment 303.1 304.6 2.3 1.5 11.4 0.5 3.9
Unemployment 14.4 16.2 0.9 1.8 -3.7 12.5 -18.6
Participation rate 65.2 65.7 0.5 0.5 -0.1 ... ...
Unemployment rate 4.5 5.0 0.3 0.5 -1.4 ... ...
Employment rate 62.2 62.4 0.5 0.2 0.8 ... ...
Windsor, Ontario              
Population 314.5 315.5 ... 1.0 6.9 0.3 2.2
Labour force 203.8 201.0 2.1 -2.8 17.8 -1.4 9.7
Employment 192.0 189.7 2.1 -2.3 19.1 -1.2 11.2
Unemployment 11.8 11.3 1.0 -0.5 -1.3 -4.2 -10.3
Participation rate 64.8 63.7 0.7 -1.1 4.3 ... ...
Unemployment rate 5.8 5.6 0.5 -0.2 -1.3 ... ...
Employment rate 61.0 60.1 0.7 -0.9 4.8 ... ...
Barrie, Ontario              
Population 187.0 187.4 ... 0.4 3.5 0.2 1.9
Labour force 140.1 140.0 1.7 -0.1 7.7 -0.1 5.8
Employment 133.9 133.7 1.8 -0.2 7.6 -0.1 6.0
Unemployment 6.1 6.3 0.8 0.2 0.1 3.3 1.6
Participation rate 74.9 74.7 0.9 -0.2 2.8 ... ...
Unemployment rate 4.4 4.5 0.5 0.1 -0.2 ... ...
Employment rate 71.6 71.3 1.0 -0.3 2.7 ... ...
Greater Sudbury, Ontario              
Population 147.1 147.3 ... 0.2 1.3 0.1 0.9
Labour force 90.5 89.9 1.0 -0.6 0.8 -0.7 0.9
Employment 86.6 85.7 1.0 -0.9 0.4 -1.0 0.5
Unemployment 3.9 4.2 0.4 0.3 0.5 7.7 13.5
Participation rate 61.5 61.0 0.7 -0.5 0.0 ... ...
Unemployment rate 4.3 4.7 0.4 0.4 0.5 ... ...
Employment rate 58.9 58.2 0.7 -0.7 -0.2 ... ...
Thunder Bay, Ontario              
Population 107.3 107.4 ... 0.1 0.8 0.1 0.8
Labour force 67.0 66.7 0.6 -0.3 1.4 -0.4 2.1
Employment 64.4 63.8 0.6 -0.6 1.7 -0.9 2.7
Unemployment 2.6 2.8 0.2 0.2 -0.4 7.7 -12.5
Participation rate 62.4 62.1 0.6 -0.3 0.8 ... ...
Unemployment rate 3.9 4.2 0.3 0.3 -0.7 ... ...
Employment rate 60.0 59.4 0.6 -0.6 1.1 ... ...
Winnipeg, Manitoba              
Population 729.9 732.1 ... 2.2 18.9 0.3 2.7
Labour force 494.6 494.6 1.7 0.0 11.7 0.0 2.4
Employment 470.2 470.2 1.7 0.0 7.8 0.0 1.7
Unemployment 24.4 24.4 0.9 0.0 3.9 0.0 19.0
Participation rate 67.8 67.6 0.2 -0.2 -0.1 ... ...
Unemployment rate 4.9 4.9 0.2 0.0 0.7 ... ...
Employment rate 64.4 64.2 0.2 -0.2 -0.6 ... ...
Regina, Saskatchewan              
Population 227.0 227.8 ... 0.8 8.1 0.4 3.7
Labour force 153.1 155.5 1.1 2.4 7.5 1.6 5.1
Employment 146.4 148.7 1.2 2.3 6.0 1.6 4.2
Unemployment 6.7 6.8 0.5 0.1 1.4 1.5 25.9
Participation rate 67.4 68.3 0.5 0.9 0.9 ... ...
Unemployment rate 4.4 4.4 0.3 0.0 0.8 ... ...
Employment rate 64.5 65.3 0.5 0.8 0.3 ... ...
Saskatoon, Saskatchewan              
Population 290.0 291.0 ... 1.0 11.2 0.3 4.0
Labour force 205.8 207.3 1.1 1.5 4.4 0.7 2.2
Employment 196.2 197.6 1.2 1.4 3.6 0.7 1.9
Unemployment 9.7 9.8 0.6 0.1 0.9 1.0 10.1
Participation rate 71.0 71.2 0.4 0.2 -1.3 ... ...
Unemployment rate 4.7 4.7 0.3 0.0 0.3 ... ...
Employment rate 67.7 67.9 0.4 0.2 -1.4 ... ...
Lethbridge, Alberta              
Population 111.3 111.8 ... 0.5 4.4 0.4 4.1
Labour force 68.2 69.0 1.2 0.8 -2.8 1.2 -3.9
Employment 64.6 65.2 1.2 0.6 -3.1 0.9 -4.5
Unemployment 3.6 3.9 0.4 0.3 0.4 8.3 11.4
Participation rate 61.3 61.7 1.1 0.4 -5.2 ... ...
Unemployment rate 5.3 5.7 0.6 0.4 0.8 ... ...
Employment rate 58.0 58.3 1.1 0.3 -5.3 ... ...
Calgary, Alberta              
Population 1,344.7 1,351.0 ... 6.3 55.9 0.5 4.3
Labour force 973.0 974.8 5.5 1.8 34.6 0.2 3.7
Employment 911.9 913.3 5.8 1.4 22.1 0.2 2.5
Unemployment 61.1 61.5 2.7 0.4 12.5 0.7 25.5
Participation rate 72.4 72.2 0.4 -0.2 -0.4 ... ...
Unemployment rate 6.3 6.3 0.3 0.0 1.1 ... ...
Employment rate 67.8 67.6 0.4 -0.2 -1.2 ... ...
Edmonton, Alberta              
Population 1,279.2 1,285.4 ... 6.2 54.9 0.5 4.5
Labour force 905.4 906.6 4.8 1.2 47.5 0.1 5.5
Employment 850.5 852.0 4.8 1.5 39.7 0.2 4.9
Unemployment 54.9 54.6 2.3 -0.3 7.8 -0.5 16.7
Participation rate 70.8 70.5 0.4 -0.3 0.7 ... ...
Unemployment rate 6.1 6.0 0.3 -0.1 0.6 ... ...
Employment rate 66.5 66.3 0.4 -0.2 0.3 ... ...
Kelowna, British Columbia               
Population 192.4 192.9 ... 0.5 4.3 0.3 2.3
Labour force 125.5 123.0 2.0 -2.5 5.1 -2.0 4.3
Employment 121.8 119.5 2.0 -2.3 6.7 -1.9 5.9
Unemployment 3.7 3.5 0.7 -0.2 -1.5 -5.4 -30.0
Participation rate 65.2 63.8 1.1 -1.4 1.3 ... ...
Unemployment rate 2.9 2.8 0.5 -0.1 -1.4 ... ...
Employment rate 63.3 61.9 1.0 -1.4 2.1 ... ...
Abbotsford–Mission, British Columbia              
Population 177.1 177.5 ... 0.4 3.3 0.2 1.9
Labour force 112.6 112.6 1.2 0.0 -2.8 0.0 -2.4
Employment 106.8 106.9 1.2 0.1 -3.1 0.1 -2.8
Unemployment 5.8 5.7 0.5 -0.1 0.4 -1.7 7.5
Participation rate 63.6 63.4 0.7 -0.2 -2.8 ... ...
Unemployment rate 5.2 5.1 0.4 -0.1 0.5 ... ...
Employment rate 60.3 60.2 0.7 -0.1 -2.9 ... ...
Vancouver, British Columbia               
Population 2,435.4 2,443.0 ... 7.6 52.0 0.3 2.2
Labour force 1,658.5 1,665.0 5.6 6.5 50.1 0.4 3.1
Employment 1,569.6 1,572.8 5.6 3.2 32.3 0.2 2.1
Unemployment 89.0 92.2 2.8 3.2 17.8 3.6 23.9
Participation rate 68.1 68.2 0.2 0.1 0.7 ... ...
Unemployment rate 5.4 5.5 0.2 0.1 0.9 ... ...
Employment rate 64.4 64.4 0.2 0.0 0.0 ... ...
Victoria, British Columbia               
Population 362.0 363.0 ... 1.0 8.2 0.3 2.3
Labour force 220.9 224.9 1.9 4.0 1.6 1.8 0.7
Employment 213.4 217.0 2.0 3.6 2.5 1.7 1.2
Unemployment 7.5 7.9 0.7 0.4 -1.0 5.3 -11.2
Participation rate 61.0 62.0 0.5 1.0 -0.9 ... ...
Unemployment rate 3.4 3.5 0.3 0.1 -0.5 ... ...
Employment rate 59.0 59.8 0.6 0.8 -0.7 ... ...
...
not applicable
Note(s):
The sum of individual categories may not always add up to the total as a result of rounding.
Source(s):
Date modified: