Table 7 
Labour force characteristics by census metropolitan area, three-month moving average, seasonally adjusted 

Labour force characteristics by census metropolitan area, three-month moving average, seasonally adjusted
  November
2022
December
2022
Standard error1 November to December 2022 December 2021 to December 2022 November to December 2022 December 2021 to December 2022
  thousands (except rates)thousands (except rates)thousands (except rates) change in thousands (except rates)change in thousands (except rates) % change% change
St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador              
Population 185.9 186.2 ... 0.3 3.7 0.2 2.0
Labour force 122.3 122.8 1.0 0.5 4.2 0.4 3.5
Employment 113.9 114.0 1.0 0.1 4.1 0.1 3.7
Unemployment 8.4 8.8 0.5 0.4 0.1 4.8 1.1
Participation rate 65.8 66.0 0.5 0.2 1.0 ... ...
Unemployment rate 6.9 7.2 0.4 0.3 -0.1 ... ...
Employment rate 61.3 61.2 0.5 -0.1 1.0 ... ...
Halifax, Nova Scotia              
Population 398.4 399.4 ... 1.0 15.0 0.3 3.9
Labour force 265.6 266.6 1.5 1.0 9.0 0.4 3.5
Employment 251.7 252.1 1.5 0.4 10.4 0.2 4.3
Unemployment 13.9 14.5 0.8 0.6 -1.4 4.3 -8.8
Participation rate 66.7 66.8 0.4 0.1 -0.2 ... ...
Unemployment rate 5.2 5.4 0.3 0.2 -0.8 ... ...
Employment rate 63.2 63.1 0.4 -0.1 0.2 ... ...
Moncton, New Brunswick              
Population 140.1 140.6 ... 0.5 5.4 0.4 4.0
Labour force 92.3 93.2 0.9 0.9 0.6 1.0 0.6
Employment 87.5 88.2 0.9 0.7 1.6 0.8 1.8
Unemployment 4.8 5.0 0.5 0.2 -1.0 4.2 -16.7
Participation rate 65.9 66.3 0.6 0.4 -2.2 ... ...
Unemployment rate 5.2 5.4 0.5 0.2 -1.1 ... ...
Employment rate 62.5 62.7 0.7 0.2 -1.4 ... ...
Saint John, New Brunswick               
Population 113.7 114.0 ... 0.3 2.9 0.3 2.6
Labour force 70.9 71.4 0.9 0.5 2.9 0.7 4.2
Employment 66.4 66.7 0.9 0.3 3.8 0.5 6.0
Unemployment 4.6 4.6 0.4 0.0 -1.0 0.0 -17.9
Participation rate 62.4 62.6 0.8 0.2 0.9 ... ...
Unemployment rate 6.5 6.4 0.6 -0.1 -1.8 ... ...
Employment rate 58.4 58.5 0.8 0.1 1.9 ... ...
Saguenay, Quebec              
Population 135.6 135.6 ... 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.1
Labour force 78.4 74.9 1.2 -3.5 -5.9 -4.5 -7.3
Employment 74.2 70.9 1.1 -3.3 -6.9 -4.4 -8.9
Unemployment 4.2 4.0 0.3 -0.2 1.1 -4.8 37.9
Participation rate 57.8 55.2 0.9 -2.6 -4.4 ... ...
Unemployment rate 5.4 5.3 0.4 -0.1 1.7 ... ...
Employment rate 54.7 52.3 0.8 -2.4 -5.1 ... ...
Québec, Quebec              
Population 695.1 695.7 ... 0.6 5.9 0.1 0.9
Labour force 456.1 453.7 3.8 -2.4 4.1 -0.5 0.9
Employment 442.5 439.9 3.8 -2.6 2.0 -0.6 0.5
Unemployment 13.6 13.8 1.3 0.2 2.1 1.5 17.9
Participation rate 65.6 65.2 0.5 -0.4 0.0 ... ...
Unemployment rate 3.0 3.0 0.3 0.0 0.4 ... ...
Employment rate 63.7 63.2 0.6 -0.5 -0.3 ... ...
Sherbrooke, Quebec              
Population 191.7 192.0 ... 0.3 2.8 0.2 1.5
Labour force 117.2 116.8 1.2 -0.4 2.9 -0.3 2.5
Employment 114.1 113.4 1.2 -0.7 3.4 -0.6 3.1
Unemployment 3.2 3.4 0.4 0.2 -0.4 6.3 -10.5
Participation rate 61.1 60.8 0.6 -0.3 0.6 ... ...
Unemployment rate 2.7 2.9 0.4 0.2 -0.4 ... ...
Employment rate 59.5 59.1 0.6 -0.4 1.0 ... ...
Trois-Rivières, Quebec               
Population 138.1 138.2 ... 0.1 0.9 0.1 0.7
Labour force 81.4 81.3 1.1 -0.1 0.8 -0.1 1.0
Employment 78.1 78.3 1.0 0.2 1.8 0.3 2.4
Unemployment 3.3 3.0 0.3 -0.3 -1.0 -9.1 -25.0
Participation rate 58.9 58.8 0.8 -0.1 0.2 ... ...
Unemployment rate 4.1 3.7 0.4 -0.4 -1.3 ... ...
Employment rate 56.6 56.7 0.8 0.1 1.0 ... ...
Montréal, Quebec              
Population 3,690.2 3,694.7 ... 4.5 43.3 0.1 1.2
Labour force 2,466.8 2,490.4 9.1 23.6 42.9 1.0 1.8
Employment 2,359.9 2,384.5 9.2 24.6 68.7 1.0 3.0
Unemployment 106.9 105.9 5.4 -1.0 -25.8 -0.9 -19.6
Participation rate 66.8 67.4 0.2 0.6 0.4 ... ...
Unemployment rate 4.3 4.3 0.2 0.0 -1.1 ... ...
Employment rate 64.0 64.5 0.3 0.5 1.1 ... ...
Ottawa–Gatineau, Ontario/Quebec               
Population 1,244.2 1,246.4 ... 2.2 25.4 0.2 2.1
Labour force 839.9 840.7 5.3 0.8 48.5 0.1 6.1
Employment 802.5 802.6 5.5 0.1 45.4 0.0 6.0
Unemployment 37.4 38.1 2.2 0.7 3.1 1.9 8.9
Participation rate 67.5 67.5 0.4 0.0 2.6 ... ...
Unemployment rate 4.5 4.5 0.3 0.0 0.1 ... ...
Employment rate 64.5 64.4 0.4 -0.1 2.4 ... ...
Ottawa–Gatineau, Quebec part, Ontario/Quebec              
Population 291.5 291.9 ... 0.4 4.0 0.1 1.4
Labour force 197.2 198.3 1.6 1.1 12.2 0.6 6.6
Employment 188.2 189.6 1.6 1.4 11.7 0.7 6.6
Unemployment 9.0 8.7 0.6 -0.3 0.5 -3.3 6.1
Participation rate 67.7 67.9 0.6 0.2 3.3 ... ...
Unemployment rate 4.6 4.4 0.3 -0.2 0.0 ... ...
Employment rate 64.6 65.0 0.5 0.4 3.2 ... ...
Ottawa–Gatineau, Ontario part, Ontario/Quebec              
Population 952.7 954.5 ... 1.8 21.4 0.2 2.3
Labour force 642.7 642.4 5.0 -0.3 36.2 -0.0 6.0
Employment 614.3 613.0 5.2 -1.3 33.7 -0.2 5.8
Unemployment 28.4 29.4 2.1 1.0 2.5 3.5 9.3
Participation rate 67.5 67.3 0.5 -0.2 2.3 ... ...
Unemployment rate 4.4 4.6 0.3 0.2 0.2 ... ...
Employment rate 64.5 64.2 0.6 -0.3 2.1 ... ...
Kingston, Ontario              
Population 149.3 149.6 ... 0.3 3.8 0.2 2.6
Labour force 95.4 95.5 0.9 0.1 8.1 0.1 9.3
Employment 90.0 90.1 1.0 0.1 8.3 0.1 10.1
Unemployment 5.4 5.4 0.4 0.0 -0.2 0.0 -3.6
Participation rate 63.9 63.8 0.6 -0.1 3.9 ... ...
Unemployment rate 5.7 5.7 0.5 0.0 -0.7 ... ...
Employment rate 60.3 60.2 0.7 -0.1 4.1 ... ...
Belleville, Ontario              
Population 96.1 95.2 ... -0.9 -3.3 -0.9 -3.4
Labour force 57.5 57.4 3.2 -0.1 0.4 -0.2 0.7
Employment 54.5 54.2 3.2 -0.3 0.3 -0.6 0.6
Unemployment 3.0 3.2 0.8 0.2 0.1 6.7 3.2
Participation rate 59.8 60.3 2.7 0.5 2.4 ... ...
Unemployment rate 5.2 5.6 1.7 0.4 0.2 ... ...
Employment rate 56.7 56.9 2.7 0.2 2.2 ... ...
Peterborough, Ontario              
Population 115.0 115.1 ... 0.1 1.4 0.1 1.2
Labour force 70.2 66.4 1.7 -3.8 -2.8 -5.4 -4.0
Employment 68.0 64.6 1.7 -3.4 2.1 -5.0 3.4
Unemployment 2.2 1.8 0.6 -0.4 -4.9 -18.2 -73.1
Participation rate 61.0 57.7 1.5 -3.3 -3.2 ... ...
Unemployment rate 3.1 2.7 0.9 -0.4 -7.0 ... ...
Employment rate 59.1 56.1 1.5 -3.0 1.1 ... ...
Oshawa, Ontario              
Population 352.9 353.4 ... 0.5 5.5 0.1 1.6
Labour force 235.6 237.3 2.2 1.7 -0.3 0.7 -0.1
Employment 223.6 226.2 2.4 2.6 4.7 1.2 2.1
Unemployment 12.0 11.1 1.1 -0.9 -5.0 -7.5 -31.1
Participation rate 66.8 67.1 0.6 0.3 -1.2 ... ...
Unemployment rate 5.1 4.7 0.5 -0.4 -2.1 ... ...
Employment rate 63.4 64.0 0.7 0.6 0.3 ... ...
Toronto, Ontario              
Population 5,689.3 5,699.1 ... 9.8 99.5 0.2 1.8
Labour force 3,737.4 3,747.7 12.4 10.3 -73.3 0.3 -1.9
Employment 3,503.1 3,521.0 12.4 17.9 -18.2 0.5 -0.5
Unemployment 234.3 226.7 7.7 -7.6 -55.1 -3.2 -19.6
Participation rate 65.7 65.8 0.2 0.1 -2.4 ... ...
Unemployment rate 6.3 6.0 0.2 -0.3 -1.4 ... ...
Employment rate 61.6 61.8 0.2 0.2 -1.4 ... ...
Hamilton, Ontario              
Population 675.0 675.5 ... 0.5 6.0 0.1 0.9
Labour force 444.9 440.0 3.6 -4.9 2.3 -1.1 0.5
Employment 422.5 418.0 3.7 -4.5 5.8 -1.1 1.4
Unemployment 22.4 22.0 1.6 -0.4 -3.4 -1.8 -13.4
Participation rate 65.9 65.1 0.5 -0.8 -0.3 ... ...
Unemployment rate 5.0 5.0 0.4 0.0 -0.8 ... ...
Employment rate 62.6 61.9 0.6 -0.7 0.3 ... ...
St. Catharines–Niagara, Ontario               
Population 377.3 377.6 ... 0.3 3.3 0.1 0.9
Labour force 228.0 230.5 2.7 2.5 6.3 1.1 2.8
Employment 215.7 218.8 2.9 3.1 12.4 1.4 6.0
Unemployment 12.3 11.7 1.2 -0.6 -6.1 -4.9 -34.3
Participation rate 60.4 61.0 0.7 0.6 1.1 ... ...
Unemployment rate 5.4 5.1 0.5 -0.3 -2.8 ... ...
Employment rate 57.2 57.9 0.8 0.7 2.8 ... ...
Kitchener–Cambridge–Waterloo, Ontario              
Population 512.3 513.3 ... 1.0 9.9 0.2 2.0
Labour force 352.5 354.1 2.7 1.6 4.5 0.5 1.3
Employment 331.4 333.2 2.7 1.8 2.9 0.5 0.9
Unemployment 21.1 20.9 1.3 -0.2 1.6 -0.9 8.3
Participation rate 68.8 69.0 0.5 0.2 -0.4 ... ...
Unemployment rate 6.0 5.9 0.4 -0.1 0.4 ... ...
Employment rate 64.7 64.9 0.5 0.2 -0.7 ... ...
Brantford, Ontario              
Population 121.0 121.1 ... 0.1 1.4 0.1 1.2
Labour force 83.9 84.2 1.0 0.3 4.9 0.4 6.2
Employment 79.5 79.3 1.0 -0.2 6.0 -0.3 8.2
Unemployment 4.4 4.9 0.4 0.5 -1.1 11.4 -18.3
Participation rate 69.3 69.5 0.8 0.2 3.3 ... ...
Unemployment rate 5.2 5.8 0.5 0.6 -1.8 ... ...
Employment rate 65.7 65.5 0.9 -0.2 4.3 ... ...
Guelph, Ontario              
Population 143.8 144.0 ... 0.2 2.4 0.1 1.7
Labour force 100.6 100.1 1.3 -0.5 -0.3 -0.5 -0.3
Employment 95.6 95.8 1.4 0.2 -0.6 0.2 -0.6
Unemployment 5.0 4.3 0.6 -0.7 0.3 -14.0 7.5
Participation rate 70.0 69.5 0.9 -0.5 -1.4 ... ...
Unemployment rate 5.0 4.3 0.6 -0.7 0.3 ... ...
Employment rate 66.5 66.5 1.0 0.0 -1.6 ... ...
London, Ontario              
Population 478.7 479.5 ... 0.8 8.5 0.2 1.8
Labour force 312.5 310.7 2.7 -1.8 -0.7 -0.6 -0.2
Employment 294.1 292.9 2.8 -1.2 0.6 -0.4 0.2
Unemployment 18.5 17.9 1.3 -0.6 -1.2 -3.2 -6.3
Participation rate 65.3 64.8 0.6 -0.5 -1.3 ... ...
Unemployment rate 5.9 5.8 0.4 -0.1 -0.3 ... ...
Employment rate 61.4 61.1 0.6 -0.3 -1.0 ... ...
Windsor, Ontario              
Population 309.9 310.3 ... 0.4 3.8 0.1 1.2
Labour force 192.2 197.2 2.5 5.0 -0.1 2.6 -0.1
Employment 175.8 181.1 2.6 5.3 -2.4 3.0 -1.3
Unemployment 16.5 16.2 1.2 -0.3 2.4 -1.8 17.4
Participation rate 62.0 63.6 0.8 1.6 -0.8 ... ...
Unemployment rate 8.6 8.2 0.6 -0.4 1.2 ... ...
Employment rate 56.7 58.4 0.8 1.7 -1.5 ... ...
Barrie, Ontario              
Population 184.7 184.9 ... 0.2 2.5 0.1 1.4
Labour force 130.2 134.8 2.0 4.6 10.2 3.5 8.2
Employment 124.0 128.0 2.1 4.0 10.2 3.2 8.7
Unemployment 6.2 6.8 1.1 0.6 0.1 9.7 1.5
Participation rate 70.5 72.9 1.1 2.4 4.6 ... ...
Unemployment rate 4.8 5.0 0.9 0.2 -0.4 ... ...
Employment rate 67.1 69.2 1.2 2.1 4.6 ... ...
Greater Sudbury, Ontario              
Population 146.2 146.2 ... 0.0 0.4 0.0 0.3
Labour force 88.7 89.9 1.1 1.2 0.8 1.4 0.9
Employment 84.6 85.9 1.0 1.3 1.9 1.5 2.3
Unemployment 4.1 4.0 0.4 -0.1 -1.1 -2.4 -21.6
Participation rate 60.7 61.5 0.7 0.8 0.4 ... ...
Unemployment rate 4.6 4.4 0.5 -0.2 -1.3 ... ...
Employment rate 57.9 58.8 0.7 0.9 1.2 ... ...
Thunder Bay, Ontario              
Population 106.6 106.7 ... 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.2
Labour force 63.0 63.1 0.7 0.1 -4.2 0.2 -6.2
Employment 59.9 60.3 0.6 0.4 -2.5 0.7 -4.0
Unemployment 3.0 2.8 0.3 -0.2 -1.7 -6.7 -37.8
Participation rate 59.1 59.1 0.6 0.0 -4.1 ... ...
Unemployment rate 4.8 4.4 0.4 -0.4 -2.3 ... ...
Employment rate 56.2 56.5 0.6 0.3 -2.5 ... ...
Winnipeg, Manitoba              
Population 717.3 718.3 ... 1.0 12.4 0.1 1.8
Labour force 481.8 481.6 1.6 -0.2 5.5 -0.0 1.2
Employment 458.8 459.7 1.7 0.9 8.8 0.2 2.0
Unemployment 23.0 21.9 0.9 -1.1 -3.2 -4.8 -12.7
Participation rate 67.2 67.0 0.2 -0.2 -0.4 ... ...
Unemployment rate 4.8 4.5 0.2 -0.3 -0.8 ... ...
Employment rate 64.0 64.0 0.2 0.0 0.1 ... ...
Regina, Saskatchewan              
Population 221.9 222.5 ... 0.6 5.8 0.3 2.7
Labour force 146.0 146.6 1.1 0.6 0.4 0.4 0.3
Employment 139.5 139.7 1.2 0.2 1.8 0.1 1.3
Unemployment 6.5 6.9 0.6 0.4 -1.4 6.2 -16.9
Participation rate 65.8 65.9 0.5 0.1 -1.6 ... ...
Unemployment rate 4.5 4.7 0.4 0.2 -1.0 ... ...
Employment rate 62.9 62.8 0.5 -0.1 -0.8 ... ...
Saskatoon, Saskatchewan              
Population 283.1 284.0 ... 0.9 8.7 0.3 3.2
Labour force 193.6 194.0 1.3 0.4 1.2 0.2 0.6
Employment 185.9 186.2 1.3 0.3 4.2 0.2 2.3
Unemployment 7.7 7.7 0.6 0.0 -3.1 0.0 -28.7
Participation rate 68.4 68.3 0.5 -0.1 -1.7 ... ...
Unemployment rate 4.0 4.0 0.3 0.0 -1.6 ... ...
Employment rate 65.7 65.6 0.5 -0.1 -0.5 ... ...
Lethbridge, Alberta              
Population 108.6 108.9 ... 0.3 3.0 0.3 2.8
Labour force 71.3 72.2 1.1 0.9 4.3 1.3 6.3
Employment 68.9 70.0 1.1 1.1 6.6 1.6 10.4
Unemployment 2.5 2.2 0.5 -0.3 -2.2 -12.0 -50.0
Participation rate 65.7 66.3 1.0 0.6 2.2 ... ...
Unemployment rate 3.5 3.0 0.7 -0.5 -3.5 ... ...
Employment rate 63.4 64.3 1.0 0.9 4.4 ... ...
Calgary, Alberta              
Population 1,310.5 1,314.3 ... 3.8 38.9 0.3 3.1
Labour force 939.2 936.5 5.4 -2.7 32.5 -0.3 3.6
Employment 883.3 875.1 5.6 -8.2 46.9 -0.9 5.7
Unemployment 55.9 61.4 3.2 5.5 -14.4 9.8 -19.0
Participation rate 71.7 71.3 0.4 -0.4 0.4 ... ...
Unemployment rate 6.0 6.6 0.3 0.6 -1.8 ... ...
Employment rate 67.4 66.6 0.4 -0.8 1.7 ... ...
Edmonton, Alberta              
Population 1,245.6 1,249.3 ... 3.7 38.3 0.3 3.2
Labour force 846.5 852.5 4.9 6.0 2.0 0.7 0.2
Employment 799.8 806.2 5.2 6.4 11.1 0.8 1.4
Unemployment 46.7 46.3 2.7 -0.4 -9.1 -0.9 -16.4
Participation rate 68.0 68.2 0.4 0.2 -2.0 ... ...
Unemployment rate 5.5 5.4 0.3 -0.1 -1.1 ... ...
Employment rate 64.2 64.5 0.4 0.3 -1.2 ... ...
Kelowna, British Columbia               
Population 189.6 189.8 ... 0.2 3.7 0.1 2.0
Labour force 112.1 112.8 1.9 0.7 -2.0 0.6 -1.7
Employment 106.6 107.4 2.0 0.8 -0.9 0.8 -0.8
Unemployment 5.5 5.4 0.8 -0.1 -1.1 -1.8 -16.9
Participation rate 59.1 59.4 1.0 0.3 -2.3 ... ...
Unemployment rate 4.9 4.8 0.7 -0.1 -0.9 ... ...
Employment rate 56.2 56.6 1.1 0.4 -1.6 ... ...
Abbotsford–Mission, British Columbia              
Population 174.8 174.9 ... 0.1 2.4 0.1 1.4
Labour force 116.9 113.4 1.2 -3.5 1.9 -3.0 1.7
Employment 111.5 108.4 1.2 -3.1 5.0 -2.8 4.8
Unemployment 5.4 5.0 0.5 -0.4 -3.2 -7.4 -39.0
Participation rate 66.9 64.8 0.7 -2.1 0.2 ... ...
Unemployment rate 4.6 4.4 0.5 -0.2 -3.0 ... ...
Employment rate 63.8 62.0 0.7 -1.8 2.1 ... ...
Vancouver, British Columbia               
Population 2,399.5 2,401.4 ... 1.9 32.2 0.1 1.4
Labour force 1,621.4 1,620.7 6.6 -0.7 6.7 -0.0 0.4
Employment 1,550.0 1,546.4 6.6 -3.6 26.1 -0.2 1.7
Unemployment 71.5 74.2 3.9 2.7 -19.5 3.8 -20.8
Participation rate 67.6 67.5 0.3 -0.1 -0.6 ... ...
Unemployment rate 4.4 4.6 0.2 0.2 -1.2 ... ...
Employment rate 64.6 64.4 0.3 -0.2 0.2 ... ...
Victoria, British Columbia               
Population 356.7 357.1 ... 0.4 6.6 0.1 1.9
Labour force 226.3 224.9 2.2 -1.4 4.8 -0.6 2.2
Employment 218.3 217.2 2.3 -1.1 6.5 -0.5 3.1
Unemployment 8.0 7.7 0.8 -0.3 -1.7 -3.8 -18.1
Participation rate 63.4 63.0 0.6 -0.4 0.2 ... ...
Unemployment rate 3.5 3.4 0.4 -0.1 -0.9 ... ...
Employment rate 61.2 60.8 0.6 -0.4 0.7 ... ...
...
not applicable
Note(s):
The sum of individual categories may not always add up to the total as a result of rounding.
Source(s):
Date modified: