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Labour Force Survey, August 2022

Released: 2022-09-09

Employment declined by 40,000 (-0.2%) in August, and the unemployment rate rose by 0.5 percentage points to 5.4%.

Employment fell among youth aged 15 to 24 in August, primarily young women, as well as among people aged 55 to 64.

Employment gains in various industries, including "other services" and professional, scientific, and technical services, were more than offset by declines in educational services and construction.

There were fewer public-sector employees in August, while the number of employees in the private sector and the number of self-employed workers held steady.

Employment fell in British Columbia, Manitoba, and Nova Scotia, while it increased in Quebec. There was little change in the other provinces.

Total hours worked were unchanged in August, following a decline in July (-0.5%). On a year-over-year basis, total hours worked were up 3.7%.

The average hourly wages of employees rose 5.4% (+$1.60 to $31.33) on a year-over-year basis in August, compared with 5.2% in both June and July (not seasonally adjusted).

In August, more than 1 in 10 (11.9%) permanent employees were planning to leave their job within the next 12 months, 5.5 percentage points higher than in January 2022 (not seasonally adjusted).

There were 307,000 Canadians in August who had left their job in order to retire at some point in the last year, up from 233,000 one year earlier and from 273,000 in August 2019 (not seasonally adjusted).

The unemployment rate for immigrants who had arrived in Canada within the past five years was lower in August 2022 (7.6%) than in any month of August since comparable data became available in 2006 (three-month moving average, not seasonally adjusted).

Highlights

Employment down in August

Employment decreased by 40,000 (-0.2%) in August, bringing cumulative declines since May 2022 to 114,000 (-0.6%).

Employment fell among youth aged 15 to 24 in August (-25,000; -0.9%), primarily among young women, as well as among people aged 55 to 64 (-34,000; -1.0%). It was little changed among those aged 25 to 54.

Employment gains in various industries, including "other services" (+15,000; +2.2%) and professional, scientific, and technical services (+14,000; +0.8%), were more than offset by declines in educational services (-50,000; -3.3%) and construction (-28,000; -1.8%).

There were fewer public-sector employees in August (-28,000; -0.6%), while the number of employees in the private sector and the number of self-employed workers held steady.

Employment fell in British Columbia, Manitoba, and Nova Scotia, while it increased in Quebec. There was little change in the other provinces.

Total hours worked were unchanged in August.

The average hourly wages of employees rose 5.4% (+$1.60 to $31.33) on a year-over-year basis in August, compared with 5.2% in both June and July (not seasonally adjusted).

Unemployment rate rises for the first time in seven months

The unemployment rate was 5.4% in August, up 0.5 percentage points from the record low of 4.9% observed in June and July.

The adjusted unemployment rate—which includes people who wanted a job but did not look for one—rose 0.5 percentage points to 7.3% in August, due to the rise in the number of unemployed.

In the Spotlight

In August, more than 1 in 10 (11.9%) permanent employees were planning to leave their job within the next 12 months, 5.5 percentage points higher than in January 2022 (not seasonally adjusted).

There were 307,000 Canadians in August who had left their job in order to retire at some point in the last year, up from 233,000 one year earlier and from 273,000 in August 2019 (not seasonally adjusted).

The unemployment rate for immigrants who had arrived in Canada within the past five years was lower in August 2022 (7.6%) than in any month of August since comparable data became available in 2006 (three-month moving average, not seasonally adjusted).

Employment down in August

Employment decreased by 40,000 (-0.2%) in August, bringing cumulative declines since May 2022 to 114,000 (-0.6%). The decrease since May has been primarily in full-time work (-94,000; -0.6%).

Despite this decline, full-time employment in August was 593,000 (+3.9%) higher than 12 months earlier, while part-time work was little changed over the same period.

Chart 1  Chart 1: Employment down in August
Employment down in August

Employment down among public-sector employees, little changed in the private sector

Employment among public-sector employees fell (-28,000; -0.6%) for the second consecutive month in August, while both the number of private sector employees and the number of self-employed workers were little changed.

On a year-over-year basis, both public sector employment (+157,000; +3.8%) and the number of private sector employees (+413,000; +3.4%) were up in August, while self-employment was flat.

The public sector includes employees in federal, provincial, territorial, municipal, and Indigenous public administrations, as well as in Crown corporations and other government institutions such as schools (including universities), hospitals and public libraries. Since February 2020, public sector employment has increased by 339,000 (+8.7%). Looking at the three industries in which the vast majority of workers are public sector employees, total employment growth over this period was 139,000 (+13.9%) in public administration, 48,000 (+3.4%) in educational services, and 12,000 (+8.3%) in utilities. In the health care and social assistance industry, which continues to experience strong labour demand, and in which just under half (47.3%) of workers are public sector employees, total employment grew by 67,000 (+2.6%) from February 2020 to August 2022.

As a proportion of total employment, public sector employment has grown from 20.3% in February 2020 to 21.7% in August 2022.

Across population groups, the proportion of workers who work in the public sector was lowest among Korean (11.5%), West Asian (13.5%) and South Asian (13.5%) Canadians in August, and highest among Métis (23.7%), Black Canadians (23.9%) and First Nations people living off-reserve (25.8%) (three-month moving averages, not seasonally adjusted).

In the private sector, growth in the number of employees since February 2020 (+226,000; +2.2%) has been offset by a decline (-222,000; -7.7%) in self-employment.

Employment declines among young women and people aged 55 to 64 

Employment among youth aged 15 to 24 fell by 25,000 (-0.9%) in August, following five months of little change. The August decline was primarily among young women (-16,000; -1.3%), while employment among young men was little changed. Employment levels for both young men and young women in August were similar to what they were 12 months earlier.

Employment among people aged 55 and older held steady for a second consecutive month in August. For those aged 55 to 64, employment fell by 34,000 (-1.0%) in the month, offsetting an increase in July. The employment rate for those aged 55 to 64 was 62.5% in August, down 1.1 percentage points from a recent peak in March 2022 but similar to the rate observed 12 months earlier in August 2021.

Employment among men in the core working ages of 25 to 54 was little changed for a fourth consecutive month in August. Employment was also little changed among women in the same age group, following a decline in July.

As summer ends, the employment rate for returning students is similar to pre-pandemic

To shed light on the summer employment of students, from May to August the Labour Force Survey (LFS) collects labour market data on youth aged 15 to 24 who were full-time students in March and who intend to return to school full time in September.

In August, the employment rate for returning students (55.6%) was on par with both its August 2021 level and the pre-pandemic August 2019 rate (not seasonally adjusted). Earlier in the summer, from May to July 2022, the employment rate for this group had consistently exceeded its pre-pandemic level.

Hybrid work continues upward trend

Working from home continues to be an important feature of work for many Canadians, although the specific nature of the arrangement continues to shift. As of August, 16.8% of employed Canadians reported that they usually work exclusively from home, down from 18.0% in July, and down 7.5 percentage points since the beginning of 2022. The proportion of workers with a hybrid work arrangement—that is, those who usually work both at home and at locations other than home—increased 0.7 percentage points to 8.6% in August (population aged 15 to 69; not seasonally adjusted). The LFS began measuring hybrid work in January 2022 and will continue to do so in the fall as employers continue to implement arrangements to resume in-office work.

Wage growth reaches 5.4% in August

Average hourly wages for employees rose 5.4% (+$1.60 to $31.33) on a year-over-year basis in August, compared with 5.2% in June and July (not seasonally adjusted). The most recent inflation data indicated that the Consumer Price Index rose 7.6% on a year-over-year basis in July, down from 8.1% in June.

Unemployment rate rises for the first time in seven months

The unemployment rate was 5.4% in August, up 0.5 percentage points from the record low of 4.9% observed in June and July. This was the first increase not coinciding with a tightening of public health restrictions since May 2020, when the unemployment rate reached its pandemic peak.

Chart 2  Chart 2: Unemployment rate up in August
Unemployment rate up in August

The unemployment rate increased for four of the six main demographic groups in August, including young men aged 15 to 24 (+1.2 percentage points, to 11.0%); women aged 55 and older (+0.7 percentage points, to 5.2%); core-aged men (+0.6 percentage points, to 4.6%); and core-aged women (+0.4 percentage points, to 4.5%). It was little changed among young women and older men.

The adjusted unemployment rate—which includes people who wanted a job but did not look for one—rose 0.5 percentage points to 7.3% in August. This increase was largely due to the rise in the number of unemployed, rather than an increase in those who were outside the labour force but wanted work.

In August, the adjusted unemployment rate ranged from 6.2% among Filipino Canadians to 12.4% among West Asian Canadians and 13.5% among Latin American Canadians (three-month moving averages, not seasonally adjusted).

Long-term unemployment—the number of people who had been continuously unemployed for 27 weeks or more—rose by 22,000 (+13.7%) in August, offsetting a similar size decline in July. Long-term unemployment expressed as a proportion of the total labour force was 0.9% in August, the same as its February 2020 pre-pandemic level.

Participation rate holds steady overall, increases among core-age men

The total size of the labour force grew by 66,000 (+0.3%) in August, and the participation rate ticked up 0.1 percentage points to 64.8%.

Among men aged 25 to 54, the participation rate increased 0.2 percentage points to 91.7% in August. This was associated with a rise in the number of men in this age group searching for work.

Across population groups, the participation rate of core-aged men in August ranged from 81.1% among First Nations men living off-reserve to 94.5% among South Asian men and 96.1% among Filipino men (three-month moving averages, not seasonally adjusted).

The participation rate among core-aged women was little changed in August at 84.4%. This was down slightly from the record high of 85.0% recorded in May 2022, but was 0.8 percentage points higher than before the pandemic in February 2020.

The participation rate among women aged 55 and older rose 0.2 percentage points to 31.1% in August, while it was little changed among older men. The participation rates of both men and women aged 55 and older trended downwards in the 12 months to August 2022, and remained below their pre-pandemic levels, partly due to the ongoing aging of this cohort, including an increase in the proportion of the group who are aged 65 and older.

Specifically, among those aged 55 to 64, the participation rate was little changed in August at 66.0%. Similar to the pattern seen for the broader 55 and older age group, the participation rates of both men and women aged 55 to 64 have been trending downwards since mid-2021 and were below their respective February 2020 levels in August 2022.

Among young women aged 15 to 24, the participation rate declined 0.8 percentage points in August to 65.2%, while it was little changed among young men. The participation rates for both male and female youth remained on par with their pre-pandemic February 2020 levels.

Employment down in educational services and construction, up in "other services"

The number of people working in educational services fell by 50,000 (-3.3%) in August, the third consecutive monthly decrease. Declines in this industry were observed in six provinces in August, led by Ontario (-19,000; -3.4%). During the summer months, changes in seasonally adjusted employment estimates for this industry can be partially affected by slight variations in the timing of when school-year based contracts for temporary employees end and begin. In 2021, 23.6% of employees in educational services were in temporary jobs, compared with 12.1% of all employees.

There were also fewer workers in construction (-28,000; -1.8%) in August, with the decrease spread across several provinces, led by Alberta (-11,000; -4.6%) and Ontario (-10,000; -1.6%). Despite the monthly decline, employment in construction was 88,000 (+6.2%) higher than in August 2021.

There were 15,000 (+2.2%) more people working in "other services" in August, following four months of little change. This industry includes a variety of services such as civic and religious organizations, as well as repair and maintenance services. Employment in "other services" in August was little changed compared with 12 months earlier, and was 83,000 (-10.2%) below its pre-pandemic February 2020 level.

The number of people working in professional, scientific and technical services rose by 14,000 (+0.8%) in August, resuming growth after two months of little change. Employment in this industry has been steadily trending upward since first recovering to its pre-pandemic level in August 2020.

Employment also increased in agriculture (+9,000; +3.6%) and utilities (+6,000; +4.2%) in August 2022.

Employment in accommodation and food services was little changed for a third consecutive month in August, and was also virtually unchanged on a year-over-year basis. Although employment in the industry was further (-179,000; -14.6%) below its pre-pandemic February 2020 level than any other industry in August 2022, job vacancies in accommodation and food services have continued to mount. According to the latest results from the Job Vacancy and Wage Survey (not seasonally adjusted), vacancies in the industry increased 6.6% (+10,600 to 171,700) in June and were up 38.8% (+48,000) on a year-over-year basis. The job vacancy rate in the industry was 12.2% in June, more than double the all-industries average.

Shift toward occupations requiring university education continues

Compared with August 2019, prior to the pandemic, employment in occupations which usually require a high school diploma or less was down by 267,000 (-3.8%) in August, while the number of Canadians working in jobs typically requiring a university education was up by 700,000 (+18.0%). Furthermore, the number of workers who have a high school diploma or less but worked in an occupation which typically requires a university education rose by 79,000 (+41.0%) over the same three-year period. This was similar to the two-year increase (+73,000; +43.4%) reported in November 2021 (three-month moving averages, not seasonally adjusted).

Despite the shift towards jobs typically requiring university education over the course of the pandemic, occupations that usually require a high school diploma or less accounted for more than one-third (34.2%) of employment in August (three-month moving averages, not seasonally adjusted).

Chart 3  Chart 3: Employment growth since before the pandemic concentrated in occupations usually requiring university education
Employment growth since before the pandemic concentrated in occupations usually requiring university education

Employment down in British Columbia, Manitoba and Nova Scotia; up in Quebec

Employment declined in British Columbia, Manitoba and Nova Scotia in August, while it increased in Quebec. There was little change in all other provinces. For further information on key province and industry level labour market indicators, see "Labour Force Survey in brief: Interactive app."

Employment in British Columbia fell by 28,000 (-1.0%) in August, while the unemployment rate was little changed at 4.8%. The employment decline followed five consecutive months of little change and was the first since April 2021.

Among the province's four census metropolitan areas (CMAs), the unemployment rate ranged from a low of 3.9% in Kelowna to a high of 5.8% in Abbotsford–Mission (three-month moving averages). In the CMA of Vancouver, employment was little changed in the month and the unemployment rate (4.8%) matched the provincial rate.

After holding steady in three of the previous four months, employment In Manitoba decreased by 10,000 (-1.5%) in August, the first notable decline since March 2022. The unemployment rate rose 1.8 percentage points to 5.3%. The Winnipeg CMA saw employment hold steady and an unemployment rate of 4.3% (three-month moving average).

In Nova Scotia, there were 5,200 (-1.1%) fewer people employed in August, after three months of little change. The unemployment rate rose 1.7 percentage points to 7.6%. Employment in the Halifax CMA declined by 1,800 and the unemployment rate was 5.4%, up 0.5 percentage points from July (three-month moving averages).

Quebec was the only province where employment increased in August (+27,000; +0.6%). There were also more people looking for work and the unemployment rate rose 0.4 percentage points to 4.5%. At 2.8%, the Québec CMA continued to post one of the lowest unemployment rates among all CMAs in the country (three-month moving average).

Following a decline in July, employment was little changed in Ontario in August. With more Ontarians in the labour force in search of work, the unemployment rate rose 0.4 percentage points to 5.7%.

Both Canada and the United States see unemployment rate increases in August

While international comparisons of labour markets are challenging due to differences in concepts, comparisons between the labour market situation in Canada and in the United States can be made by adjusting Canadian data to US concepts. For more information, see "Measuring Employment and Unemployment in Canada and the United States – A comparison."

Adjusted to US concepts, the unemployment rate for people aged 16 and older was 4.2% in Canada and 3.7% in the United States in August, as the rate increased 0.2 percentage points in both countries. Compared with pre-pandemic levels of February 2020, the rate in Canada was 0.5 percentage points lower, while in the United States it was 0.2 percentage points higher.

A frequent point of comparison between Canada and the United States is the employment rate, defined as the number of people who are employed as a percentage of the working-age population, which is typically higher in Canada. Adjusted to US concepts, the employment rate was 61.9% in Canada and 60.1% in the United States in August. While the rate was down 0.5 percentage points from February 2020 in Canada, it was 1.1 percentage points below the pre-pandemic level in the United States.

The labour force participation rate, also adjusted to US concepts, was 64.5% in Canada in August, down a full percentage point from February 2020. In the United States, the participation rate was 62.4%, also a full percentage point below the February 2020 rate.

Chart 4  Chart 4: Unemployment rate up in both Canada and the United States in August
Unemployment rate up in both Canada and the United States in August

In the Spotlight: intentions to leave current job; retirements; and recent immigrants in the labour force

More employees planning to leave current job than in January

In August, there continued to be little indication that tight labour market conditions in recent months have led to an increase in the likelihood of workers voluntarily leaving or switching jobs. For example, the job-changing rate—which measures the proportion of workers who remain employed from one month to the next but who change jobs between months—was 0.5%, down slightly from 0.6% in June and July, and from the pre-pandemic 2017-2019 average of 0.7%.

However, results from a supplementary question added to the LFS in August suggest that the number of Canadians who are considering a job change is on the rise. The proportion of permanent employees who were planning to leave their job within the next 12 months (11.9%) was almost double the level recorded in January 2022 (6.4%), when the question was last asked. Among those whose hourly wages were in the bottom 20% in August, nearly 2 in 10 (19.6%) were planning to leave their job (population aged 15 to 69; not seasonally adjusted).

Changing careers remained the most common main reason for planning to leave a job in August and was cited by 3.1% of permanent employees, up from 1.6% in January 2022. The proportion of permanent employees who indicated that they were planning to leave their job mainly due to low pay increased from 1.2% in January to 1.9% in August (population aged 15 to 69; not seasonally adjusted).

To better understand the factors which might influence whether workers change jobs, the August LFS included questions on the features of a job that respondents considered either essential or very important. Salary and benefits (85.4%) was the feature identified by the highest proportion of employees, followed by workplace health and safety (82.2%), job security (81.7%) and the relationship with their supervisor and colleagues (78.5%). For employees in the core working ages of 25 to 54, salary and benefits (89.0%) and job security (86.6%) were particularly important, while youth aged 15 to 24 prioritized workplace health and safety (78.4%) and the relationship with their supervisor and colleagues (76.3%) (population aged 15 to 69; not seasonally adjusted).

Chart 5  Chart 5: Salary and benefits are the top job attribute valued by employees
Salary and benefits are the top job attribute valued by employees

Fewer than half (42.3%) of all employees indicated that a flexible work location was important or essential. However, among employees who reported that they usually work all or part of their hours from home, this proportion was 67.1%, suggesting that work location may continue to be an important point of discussion between certain employers and their employees (population aged 15 to 69; not seasonally adjusted).

Employers likely to continue to face recruitment challenges as many workers reach retirement age

While the number of job searchers has increased by 106,000 since June, potentially increasing the pool of available workers, many employers are likely to continue to face significant challenges filling vacant positions. As of June 2022, for the first time since data from the Job Vacancy and Wage Survey became available in 2015, there were fewer unemployed people (989,000) than job vacancies (1,038,000) (not seasonally adjusted). This labour market tightness was reflected in the outlook of employers, as results from the Canadian Survey on Business Conditions conducted during the third quarter of 2022 indicate that nearly two-fifths (38.7%) of businesses in Canada expected that recruiting skilled employees would be an obstacle in the next three months.

In addition to short-term economic conditions, labour supply is affected by population aging and changes in the age structure of the population over time. In August, there were 307,000 Canadians who had left their job in order to retire at some point in the last year, up from 233,000 one year earlier and from 273,000 in August 2019 (not seasonally adjusted). Furthermore, if the contribution of each age group to the total population had stayed constant over the past three years—rather than older Canadians comprising a larger and larger share of the population—the number of people in the labour force would have been 374,000 higher than actually observed in August (three-month moving average, not seasonally adjusted).

The impact of population aging and retirements on labour supply is further illustrated by the ratio of the number of younger workers who are beginning their working years (i.e., those aged 25 to 34) and the number who are employed but aged 55 and older. This ratio was 1.1 overall in August, up slightly from 1.0 in August 2019 but down from 1.2 in August 2012 and 1.9 in August 2002 (not seasonally adjusted).

The age distribution among the employed population varied by occupation in August. Excluding management positions, which are typically filled by more experienced workers, occupations related to transportation and manufacturing had some of the oldest age profiles in August. Specifically, workers in transport and heavy equipment operation (0.54), assemblers in manufacturing (0.56) and processing and manufacturing machine operators (0.62) had some of the lowest ratios of younger workers to older workers (three-month moving averages, not seasonally adjusted).

In each of the Atlantic provinces, the ratio of younger to older workers was below 1.0 in August. Alberta and Manitoba, on the other hand, had the youngest employed population in Canada, as younger workers outnumbered older workers by approximately six to five (not seasonally adjusted).

Chart 6  Chart 6: Alberta and Manitoba have the highest number of workers aged 25 to 34 for every worker aged 55 and older
Alberta and Manitoba have the highest number of workers aged 25 to 34 for every worker aged 55 and older

Unemployment among very recent immigrants contributes to local labour market conditions

In recent years, as more and more Canadians have reached retirement age and exited the labour force, immigration has been particularly important in supporting labour force growth. As of August, for example, the labour force included 875,000 immigrants who had arrived in Canada within the past five years (three-month moving average, not seasonally adjusted).

While immigration plays a vital role in supporting economic growth, many recent immigrants experience periods of unemployment as they integrate into the Canadian labour market. Although the unemployment rate for this group was lower in August 2022 (7.6%) than in any month of August since comparable data became available in 2006, it remained higher than the August 2022 rate for those born in Canada (5.0%), consistent with historical trends (three-month moving averages, not seasonally adjusted).

The unemployment rate of very recent immigrants has a particular impact on labour market conditions in Canada's largest cities, which attract a disproportionate share of new arrivals. In both the Toronto (6.5%) and Montréal (6.6%) economic regions, the unemployment rate surpassed the national average in August, due in part to recent immigrants accounting for a higher share of the labour force than in Canada as a whole. In Toronto for example, immigrants who had arrived in Canada in the past five years made up 6.7% of those who were employed or unemployed in August, compared with 4.2% nationally, and had an unemployment rate of 8.4%. (three-month moving averages, not seasonally adjusted).















Sustainable Development Goals

On January 1, 2016, the world officially began implementation of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development—the United Nations' transformative plan of action that addresses urgent global challenges over the next 15 years. The plan is based on 17 specific sustainable development goals.

The Labour Force Survey is an example of how Statistics Canada supports the reporting on the Global Goals for Sustainable Development. This release will be used in helping to measure the following goals:

  Note to readers

The Labour Force Survey (LFS) estimates for August are for the week of August 14 to 20, 2022.

The LFS estimates are based on a sample and are therefore subject to sampling variability. As a result, monthly estimates will show more variability than trends observed over longer time periods. For more information, see "Interpreting Monthly Changes in Employment from the Labour Force Survey."

This analysis focuses on differences between estimates that are statistically significant at the 68% confidence level.

LFS estimates at the Canada level do not include the territories.

The LFS estimates are the first in a series of labour market indicators released by Statistics Canada, which includes indicators from programs such as the Survey of Employment, Payrolls and Hours (SEPH); Employment Insurance Statistics; and the Job Vacancy and Wage Survey. For more information on the conceptual differences between employment measures from the LFS and those from the SEPH, refer to section 8 of the Guide to the Labour Force Survey (Catalogue number71-543-G).

Since March 2020, all LFS face-to-face interviews have been replaced by telephone interviews conducted by interviewers working from their home to protect the health of both respondents and interviewers. While this has resulted in a decline in the LFS response rate, close to 49,000 interviews were completed in August and in-depth data quality evaluations conducted each month confirm that the LFS continues to produce an accurate portrait of Canada's labour market.

The employment rate is the number of employed people as a percentage of the population aged 15 and older. The rate for a particular group (for example, youths aged 15 to 24) is the number employed in that group as a percentage of the population for that group.

The unemployment rate is the number of unemployed people as a percentage of the labour force (employed and unemployed).

The participation rate is the number of employed and unemployed people as a percentage of the population aged 15 and older.

Full-time employment consists of persons who usually work 30 hours or more per week at their main or only job.

Part-time employment consists of persons who usually work less than 30 hours per week at their main or only job.

Total hours worked refers to the number of hours actually worked at the main job by the respondent during the reference week, including paid and unpaid hours. These hours reflect temporary decreases or increases in work hours (for example, hours lost due to illness, vacation, holidays or weather; or more hours worked due to overtime).

In general, month-to-month or year-to-year changes in the number of people employed in an age group reflect the net effect of two factors: (1) the number of people who changed employment status between reference periods, and (2) the number of employed people who entered or left the age group (including through aging, death or migration) between reference periods.

Supplementary indicators used in the August 2022 analysis

Employed, worked zero hours includes employees and self-employed who were absent from work all week, but excludes people who have been away for reasons such as 'vacation,' 'maternity,' 'seasonal business,' and 'labour dispute.'

Employed, worked less than half of their usual hours includes both employees and self-employed, where only employees were asked to provide a reason for the absence. This excludes reasons for absence such as 'vacation,' 'labour dispute,' 'maternity,' 'holiday,' and 'weather.' Also excludes those who were away all week.

Not in labour force but wanted work includes persons who were neither employed, nor unemployed during the reference period and wanted work, but did not search for reasons such as 'waiting for recall (to former job),' 'waiting for replies from employers,' 'believes no work available (in area, or suited to skills),' 'long-term future start,' and 'other.'

Unemployed, job searchers were without work, but had looked for work in the past four weeks ending with the reference period and were available for work.

Unemployed, temporary layoff or future starts were on temporary layoff due to business conditions, with an expectation of recall, and were available for work; or were without work, but had a job to start within four weeks from the reference period and were available for work (don't need to have looked for work during the four weeks ending with the reference week).

Labour underutilization rate (specific definition to measure the COVID-19 impact) combines all those who were unemployed with those who were not in the labour force but wanted a job and did not look for one; as well as those who remained employed but lost all or the majority of their usual work hours for reasons likely related to COVID-19 as a proportion of the potential labour force.

Potential labour force (specific definition to measure the impact of COVID-19) includes people in the labour force (all employed and unemployed people), and people not in the labour force who wanted a job but didn't search for reasons such as 'waiting for recall (to former job),' 'waiting for replies from employers,' 'believes no work available (in area, or suited to skills),' 'long-term future start,' and 'other.'

New data table on the labour force characteristics of Indigenous peoples living off-reserve

A new data table (14-10-0401-01) presenting labour force characteristics of Indigenous peoples living off-reserve is now available on the Statistics Canada website. This new table provides estimates based on three-month moving averages and can help users monitor recent trends in employment, unemployment and labour force participation among Indigenous peoples.

Seasonal adjustment

Unless otherwise stated, this release presents seasonally adjusted estimates, which facilitate comparisons by removing the effects of seasonal variations. For more information on seasonal adjustment, see Seasonally adjusted data – Frequently asked questions.

The seasonally adjusted data for retail trade and wholesale trade industries presented here are not published in other public LFS tables. A seasonally adjusted series is published for the combined industry classification (wholesale and retail trade).

Next release

The next release of the LFS will be on October 7, 2022. September data will reflect labour market conditions during the week of September 11 to 17, 2022.

Products

More information about the concepts and use of the Labour Force Survey is available online in the Guide to the Labour Force Survey (Catalogue number71-543-G).

The product "Labour Force Survey in brief: Interactive app" (Catalogue number14200001) is also available. This interactive visualization application provides seasonally adjusted estimates by province, sex, age group and industry.

The product "Labour Market Indicators, by province and census metropolitan area, seasonally adjusted" (Catalogue number71-607-X) is also available. This interactive dashboard provides customizable access to key labour market indicators.

The product "Labour Market Indicators, by province, territory and economic region, unadjusted for seasonality" (Catalogue number71-607-X) is also available. This dynamic web application provides access to labour market indicators for Canada, province, territory and economic region.

The product Labour Force Survey: Public Use Microdata File (Catalogue number71M0001X) is also available. This public use microdata file contains non-aggregated data for a wide variety of variables collected from the Labour Force Survey. The data have been modified to ensure that no individual or business is directly or indirectly identified. This product is for users who prefer to do their own analysis by focusing on specific subgroups in the population or by cross-classifying variables that are not in our catalogued products.

Contact information

For more information, or to enquire about the concepts, methods or data quality of this release, contact us (toll-free 1-800-263-1136; 514-283-8300; infostats@statcan.gc.ca) or Media Relations (statcan.mediahotline-ligneinfomedias.statcan@statcan.gc.ca).

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