Non-profit institutions and volunteering: Economic contribution, fourth quarter 2021
Real gross domestic product increases for sixth straight quarter
Real gross domestic product (GDP) of non-profit institutions rose 0.5% in the fourth quarter of 2021, reflecting increases throughout non-profit sectors. Growth in the non-profit sector lagged economy-wide real GDP growth, as the economy grew 1.6% in the fourth quarter of 2021, following a 1.3% rise in the third quarter of 2021.
In 2021, real GDP for non-profit institutions rose by 2.1%, while the economy-wide real GDP grew by 4.6%. The lower growth rate for non-profit institutions in 2021 compared with the total economy was partly attributable to the strength of health care activities throughout 2020, a large component of non-profit institutions, lessening the negative impact from COVID-19 pandemic-related restrictions in 2020.
Real GDP of non-profit institutions excluding those serving governments grew by 0.7% in the fourth quarter, following a 2.3% increase in the third quarter of 2021. This relatively slow fourth quarter increase coincided with Omicron variant-related restrictions.
Real gross domestic product grows throughout non-profit sectors
Non-profit institutions serving businesses rose by 0.9% in the fourth quarter of 2021, a fifth quarterly increase over the last six quarters. Non-profits serving businesses recorded the largest variation in growth rates throughout the pandemic, with the greatest impacts from pandemic-related restrictions. In 2021, business non-profits increased by 4.2%, following the steepest decline among sectors in 2020 (-10.4%).
Non-profit institutions serving governments also increased in the fourth quarter of 2021, up 0.5%, following a 1.0% increase in the third quarter. Hospital services increased as the Omicron-led wave of COVID-19 began in early December. Non-profits serving governments rose by 1.9% in 2021, following a 0.3% decline in 2020.
Similar to non-profits serving governments, non-profit institutions serving households recorded a 0.5% increase in real GDP in the fourth quarter of 2021. Growth in non-profits serving households have followed a similar trend to non-profits serving businesses, with increases in five of the last six quarters. In 2021, non-profit institutions serving households grew by 1.8%, following a 2.7% decline in 2020.
Employment rises in health care and social services
Employment in non-profit institutions rose by 1.4% in the fourth quarter of 2021, driven by an increase in the number of jobs in health care and social services. The number of jobs in non-profit institutions in the fourth quarter of 2021 were 4.3% higher than in the fourth quarter of 2020, but still remained 0.3% lower than in the fourth quarter of 2019.
Jobs in health care grew by 1.3% in the fourth quarter of 2021, following a 1.8% increase in the third quarter. Compared with the first quarter of 2020, health care has recorded the largest increase in employment among activities, up 6.3%.
The number of employees in social services activities rose by 2.0% in the fourth quarter of 2021, a sixth consecutive quarterly increase. Despite the increases, employment remains 7.1% lower than the peak in the first quarter of 2020.
Nominal gross domestic product rises
Non-profit institutions' nominal GDP increased by 2.0% in the fourth quarter of 2021, on the strength of increased activity in health care (+2.4%), social services (+3.7%), and business and professional associations and unions (+2.8%).
For non-profits excluding governments, nominal gross domestic product increased by 2.6%, following a 5.2% increase in the third quarter. Overall, non-profit institutions represented 8.3% of the economy-wide nominal GDP in the fourth quarter of 2021, while non-profit excluding the government nominal GDP represented 2.1%.
Nominal GDP in health care activities rose 2.4% in the fourth quarter of 2021, a seventh consecutive quarterly growth. Health care activities have been increasing since the start of the pandemic, as hospital services continued to fight COVID-19.
Note to readers
The non-profit indicators are quarterly indicators for the main aggregates in the Satellite Account of Non-profit Institutions and Volunteering, namely gross domestic product, output and employment. The estimates from this account are directly comparable to the estimates in the Canadian System of Macroeconomic Accounts.
For the purposes of these estimates, the definition of the non-profit sector adheres to international standards published in the United Nations Handbook of Satellite Accounts on Non-profit and Related Institutions and Volunteer Work. Canada's overall non-profit sector is divided into the following three broad categories:
Community non-profits institutions include organizations engaged, for example, in social services, advocacy or sports and recreation. These make up the "non-profit institutions serving households" sector in standard macroeconomic measures.
Business non-profits institutions include, for example, business associations, chambers of commerce and condominium associations. These are classified to the business sector in standard measures.
Government non-profits institutions include hospitals, some residential care facilities, universities and colleges. These are classified to the government sector in standard measures.
The Economic accounts statistics portal, accessible from the Subjects module of the Statistics Canada website, features an up-to-date portrait of national and provincial economies and their structure.
The Latest Developments in the Canadian Economic Accounts (13-605-X) is available.
The User Guide: Canadian System of Macroeconomic Accounts (13-606-G) is available.
The Methodological Guide: Canadian System of Macroeconomic Accounts (13-607-X) is available.
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