Employment characteristics of Métis women and men aged 25 to 54 in Canada
The 2017 Aboriginal Peoples Survey (APS) marks the fifth cycle of this national survey of First Nations people living off reserve, Métis and Inuit aged 15 or older. In 2017, the survey focused on participation in the economy. Today, Statistics Canada releases new analyses focusing on employment among First Nations living off-reserve and Métis aged 25 to 54, as well as on Inuit participation in the wage and land-based economies in Inuit Nunangat.
Today's publications build on APS products summarizing key findings from the survey, released on November 26, 2018 (see Daily articles on First Nations people living off reserve, Métis and Inuit).
These early overviews for Métis were presented in a booklet (see Labour market experiences of Métis), an infographic (see Self-employment among Métis) and an interactive map (see Methods used to look for work, reasons for difficulty finding work, and things that would help find work). Today's analyses place further focus on participation in the economy.
Over the coming months, Statistics Canada will release additional analytical products focusing on key topics of the 2017 APS, including upgrading education and high school equivalency, persons with disabilities and educational attainment in Nunavut.
Employment patterns of Métis women and men differ
Among other benefits, education has been found to contribute to closing the gap between the employment levels of women and men. In 2017, Métis men (82%) had a higher employment rate than Métis women (75%). This remained true across education levels, but the gap narrowed with higher levels of education.
These findings are from the article "Employment characteristics of Métis women and men aged 25 to 54 in Canada," based on data from the 2017 APS. The article provides a detailed analysis of Métis employment through a gender lens, including employment rates, employment income, education, occupation and employment types, economic instability and self-reported mental health.
Métis women were more likely to be employed in female-dominated occupations such as sales and services in 2017 compared with men (27% versus 15%). However, gender lines are blurring. For example, although Métis men were more likely than Métis women to be employed in trades, transport and as equipment operators and in related occupations, no difference was found between Métis women and men employed in management occupations.
The data show that the share of Métis women employed in sales and services occupations declined with higher levels of education. The proportion of Métis women employed in sales and services was higher than Métis men for every level of educational attainment except among those with a university degree, where there was no longer a gender gap.
Compared with men, Métis women employed in permanent work were less likely to be able to meet basic household needs
Stable work brings benefits in the form of helping to meet basic household needs such as transportation, housing, food and clothing. Métis women employed in permanent work were less likely to report being able to meet basic household needs compared with Métis men (11% versus 17%) or to cover an unexpected expense of $500 using either individual or household resources (20% versus 32%).
Although Métis women reported being more economically vulnerable compared with Métis men, at higher education levels the employment and income gap narrowed. Data on the education levels across several cycles of the APS suggest an upward trend in postsecondary completion among Métis aged 15 and older, suggesting a positive economic trend that may result in the narrowing of the employment and wage gap among Métis men and women.
Note to readers
This article entitled "Employment characteristics of Métis women and men aged 25 to 54 in Canada" features analysis based on data from the 2017 Aboriginal Peoples Survey (APS). The APS is a national survey of the Aboriginal identity population aged 15 and older living in private dwellings, excluding people living on Indian reserves and settlements and in certain First Nations communities in Yukon and the Northwest Territories. The APS response rate was 76%, yielding a sample of approximately 24,000 Aboriginal respondents.
In this study, the Métis population includes those who responded 'Métis' to the question "Are you First Nations (North American Indian), Métis or Inuk (Inuit)?" on the 2017 APS. Single and multiple responses to Métis identity were included in the analysis.
Estimates with coefficients of variation greater than 16.6% but less than or equal to 33.3% should be interpreted with caution. These estimates are presented with an "E" throughout the text.
We would like to acknowledge the contribution of those National Indigenous Organizations who contributed to the APS.
The article "Employment characteristics of Métis women and men aged 25 to 54 in Canada" is now available as part of the publication Aboriginal Peoples Survey (89 653 X). Alongside this article, two others, entitled "Inuit participation in the wage and land-based economies in Inuit Nunangat" and "Employment of First Nations men and women living off reserve," are also available.
For more information, or to enquire about the concepts, methods or data quality of this release, contact us (toll-free 1-800-263-1136; 514-283-8300; STATCAN.infostats-infostats.STATCAN@canada.ca) or Media Relations (613-951-4636; STATCAN.mediahotline-ligneinfomedias.STATCAN@canada.ca).