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Tourism satellite account: Human resource module, 2014

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Released: 2015-10-01

The total number of jobs in tourism industries, including both employee jobs and jobs from self-employment, was 1.7 million in 2014. This was a 0.5% decline from the previous year and the first decrease since 2009.

The decline in jobs in tourism industries occurred across all types of work. The number of full-time employee jobs (-1,100), part-time employee jobs (-2,500) and jobs from self-employment (-4,100) all fell in 2014.

The recreation and entertainment industry (-3.4%) led the job losses in 2014, followed by the accommodation (-1.0%) and food and beverage services (-0.2%) industries. In turn, air transportation (+3.7%) and transportation industries other than air (+1.3%) recorded job gains in 2014.

Despite job losses in 2014, the food and beverage services industry continued to account for more than half (55%) of all jobs in the tourism sector.

Hours worked and compensation

In 2014, the average work week in the tourism sector was 29.6 hours, the same as in 2013. The average work week in food and beverage services (27.8 hours) and in recreation and entertainment (29.2 hours) was shorter than the sector average, reflecting higher proportions of part-time jobs in these industries.

The average hourly compensation in tourism industries in 2014, including supplementary labour income, was $21.42. This was up 3.6% from 2013 when the average hourly compensation was $20.68.

Of all employee jobs in the tourism sector, those in the air transportation industry ($34.88) paid the highest average hourly wage, while those in food and beverage services ($14.26) paid the least.

Women and young workers hold the largest proportion of employee jobs in tourism industries

Food counter attendants and kitchen helpers accounted for the largest proportion (15.5%) of employee jobs in the tourism sector in 2014. These jobs paid an average hourly wage of $11.54 in 2014.

Women continued to outnumber men in the tourism sector in 2014. On average, men employed in tourism industries worked more weekly hours than women and earned higher wages.

Young workers (those aged 15 to 24) held more than one-third of all employee jobs in tourism industries in 2014. Of these, three-quarters were in food and beverage services.

In 2014, one in four employee jobs in tourism was held by an immigrant.

Over 50% of the jobs in the tourism sector in 2014 were held by workers whose highest educational attainment was a high school diploma or who did not hold a certificate, diploma or degree.

The travel services industry had the largest proportion of jobs held by an employee with a university degree at the bachelor level or above (33.3%) or with a college, CEGEP or other non-university certificate (42.4%).

  Note to readers

The human resource module of the tourism satellite account is funded through a partnership agreement with the Canadian Tourism Human Resource Council. It provides timely and reliable statistics on the human resource dimension of tourism. This update includes new data for the reference year 2014 as well as revised data for 1997 to 2013. This release also includes, for the first time, a new employee characteristic variable: highest earned certificate, diploma or degree.

The human resource module provides the total jobs, hours worked and compensation in tourism industries, including jobs that are attributable to demand from both tourists and non-tourists. This is different from the data for tourism jobs in the national tourism indicators and the tourism satellite account, which include only those jobs that are directly attributable to demand from tourists.

Employee jobs are defined as jobs for which the employer must complete a Canada Revenue Agency T4 form. Jobs in which workers are paid by tips or commissions are also included.

Jobs from self-employment include jobs performed by working owners of unincorporated enterprises, and members of their households who work without a wage or salary (that is, unpaid family workers).


The System of macroeconomic accounts module, accessible from the Browse by key resource module of our website, features an up-to-date portrait of national and provincial economies and their structure.

Data tables for the 2014 human resource module of the tourism satellite account are available upon request. To obtain these data tables, contact Anne-Marie Bridger (, National Economic Accounts Division.

Contact information

For more information, or to enquire about the concepts, methods or data quality of this release, contact us (toll-free 1-800-263-1136; 514-283-8300; or Media Relations (613-951-4636;

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